浅谈福建省竹类主要病虫害的防治与研究

 

专业:林学  学号:W891315120037  学生姓名:袁爱兰

(指导教师:郝建锋)

摘要:伴随着各国经济的不断发展,各个国家越来越注重经济社会的可持续发展,竹类作为生态系统的重要组成部分,得到了越来越多人的关注,而福建省作为我国的竹类第一大省,却面临着巨大的竹类病虫害,因此本文将指出福建省竹类主要病虫害的种类,并指出相应的防治措施,从而更好地指导人们发展竹业,利用竹类为人类服务。

关键字:竹类;病虫害;防治

 

竹类是人类生产和生活的伴侣,竹子全身都是宝,它在我们的日常生产生活中有成千上万种的用途,既可食又可用,竹笋营养丰富,是原生态安全食品;竹子材质优良,可以制作各种生活用品和艺术品,在建筑和造纸方面用途也很广泛,竹子还是优良的园林绿化和旅游观赏植物。

竹类作为生态系统的重要组成部分得到各国领导者的关注,作为农民收入的重要组成部分又得到各国农民的关注,总之竹类有很高的生态价值、欣赏价值及经济价值,对于世界各国来说,对竹类资源的保护已成为当务之急。

对于我国来说,竹类更是最重要的资源,这首先是因为在我国的森林资源中,竹类的种类及数量都很多,有很大优势;其次是因为在世界竹类中,我国的竹类面积为500万hm2,占世界竹类面积的20%,是全世界竹类分布的中心。[1]

对福建省竹类资源的简要介绍

福建地处我国东南沿海,具有丰富的竹类资源,主要有经济竹类资源和观赏竹类资源两种,是我国的竹类第一省,这是由于福建省位于南亚热带及中亚热带,属于东部季风地带,其适宜的气候水热条件非常适合于竹类的生长,因此福建省竹类资源丰富,首先表现在竹类面积大,福建省竹类面积为82.03 万hm2,占全国竹类面积的18.67%,其次表现为竹类种类多,福建省竹类有19个属,约为200个竹种,其中毛林面积达到72.41万hm2,是福建省竹类种类的重要组成部分,它主要分布在武夷山、戴云山、博平岭和鹫峰山脉的中低山地,这些地方也是中国毛竹分布区自然生产力最高的区域。[2]

尽管福建省在竹类资源方面拥有很大的优势,但福建省并没有沉浸在资源的优势中只顾享受资源能够带来的直接利益,也没有走只顾经济发展而不保护竹林资源的旧式发展之路,相反,福建省不仅注重竹类加工业的发展,而且注重在竹类加工方面的改革与创新,从而为福建省带来更大的经济利益,这表现在福建省注重竹类加工业由小规模的手工生产向大规模的机械化生产转变,由初级产品带来的低附加值向深加工产品带来的高附加值转变,并且农民的林业收入已占全年收入的40%到50%[3] ,足见竹类为福建省的经济发展产生了极大的促进作用。[4]

然而,近年来,福建省的竹类病虫害日益猖狂,不仅种类变多,发生面积变大,而且发展迅猛,被称为“无烟的竹类火灾”。[5] 不仅侵蚀了福建省大量的竹类资源,也破坏了福建省的生态系统,更减少了当地农民的收入,给当地的经济发展带来了不可估量的损失。因此,我们要认真研究福建省竹类病虫害,并采取相关的防治措施,将其灾害降到最低,从而为福建省的生态、经济和谐共进的可持续发展贡献自己的一份力量。

福建省竹类病虫害的主要种类

福建省的竹类病虫害有很多种类,其中传播最为迅速、造成危害较大的竹类病虫害有竹秆锈病、竹丛枝病、竹笋夜蛾等。[6] 它们以不同的方式慢慢侵蚀着竹林,接下来我们就其对竹类的危害情况进行简单的介绍。

2.1 竹秆锈病

竹秆锈病又称竹褥病。该病菌一般表现为以菌丝体在竹秆黄斑中越冬的形式。菌丝体可在活组织中存活多年。每年不仅自己表现为黄斑,还会产生冬孢子和夏孢子,并通过夏孢子随风传播的形式使病害蔓延扩展。并且,竹林中新老竹子一旦感染该病菌均可当年发病。该病害对竹类的影响主要表现在病斑区维管束受到破坏,竹株的代谢循环系统受到损坏,营养条件恶化,叶面枯黄,发笋减少,被害竹株材质变脆,使用价值大大降低,重病竹林还会逐年衰败。[7] 上个世纪八十年代,苏、浙、皖等省竹杆锈病迅速蔓延,发病率常达50%左右,严重的达70—90%以上。该种病害在生长过密、湿度大、不通风、经营管理不善的竹林里更容易发生。[8]

2.2 竹丛枝病

竹丛枝病,又称雀巢病、扫帚病。该病菌在发病初期时,只有少数竹枝发病,但是到了春天时,病枝会不断延伸,生出多节细弱的蔓枝。这表现为每年4—6月间,病枝顶端鞘内产生白色米粒状物,有时在9—10月间,新生长出来的病枝梢端的叶鞘内,也会产生白色米粒状物,即病株先从少数竹枝发病,数年内逐步发展到全部竹枝。由以上症状可以看出该病的危害特点主要是破坏竹枝、叶的正常发育,其病害的特征是使受害枝叶变形,进而影响枝叶光合作用的正常进行,最终影响竹子的正常生长,造成竹子的枯死。[9]

通过普查、抽样调查、定点观察、孢子捕捉、病原菌分离培养、致病性测定等方法,查明了毛竹丛枝病在广西的分布、危害和损失情况,证实竹瘤座菌(Balansia take)是毛竹丛枝病的病原,明确了该病的症状特点和主要发生流行规律。分生孢子主要通过风雨吹溅传播;3月下旬~5月中旬,平均温度20°C左右,相对湿度80%以上,是病害发生流行的主要季节;竹尖胸沫蝉(Aphrophora horizontalis)是毛竹丛枝病的传播媒介;昆虫等造成的伤口是病菌侵入的主要途径;新竹当年即可感染发病。[9]

2.3 竹笋夜蛾

竹笋夜蛾,昆虫名,为鳞翅目,夜蛾科。危害毛竹、淡竹、刚竹、红竹、桂竹、哺鸡竹、石竹、慈竹、苦竹、紫竹、油竹等竹类及禾本科、莎草科杂草。 以幼虫蛀食竹笋,受害笋形成虫退笋,不能成竹。少数成竹者也断头折梢,虫孔累累,心腐质脆,影响观赏和竹材质量。[13]

雌成虫体长17~21mm,翅展38~43mm;雄成虫体长14~19mm,翅展32~40mm。头部及胸部黄褐色,颈板、翅基片黑棕色;腹部淡褐灰色。前翅淡褐色,基部有一大褐斑,亚端区前缘有一漏斗形大褐斑,基线褐色,从褐斑中穿过,内线双线褐色,波浪形,环纹及肾纹黄白色,肾纹外缘白色,中线褐色,粗,锯齿形,后端与外线相接,外线黄白色,锯齿形,齿尖为褐色和白点,肾纹与外线之间有明显褐斑,亚端线黄白色,在2、5脉处内凸,在5脉处内、外侧均有黑尖纹,端线为一列黑棕色长点,亚端线与端线间的后半带棕色;后翅褐色,基部微黄。足深灰色。[13]

卵,近球形,长约0.8毫米,淡黄白色。幼虫体长30~45毫米,头部橙红色。体紫褐色、背线细,白色,亚背线较宽,白色,但在腹部第二节前半段短缺。[13]

蛹,长15~26毫米,赤褐色,臀棘4根。[13]

生活习性,一年发生1代,以卵在禾本科杂草枯叶的边缘卷皱中越冬;翌年2月底开始孵化,此时竹笋尚未出土幼虫即钻入禾本科、莎草科杂草心叶中危害,引致枯心、白穗征状。幼虫在草心中蜕皮2~3次,不再生长,至4月上、中旬竹笋出土,幼虫即由杂草转而蛀入笋中危害,先由笋尖小叶中蛀人,取食后再蜕一次皮,爬出小叶,转入咬破笋箨蛀入笋内危害,如遇小竹笋箨较薄,可直接蛀人笋内。幼虫在笋内蛀食18~25天老熟,笋小时可转笋危害;至5月上、中旬老熟幼虫爬出笋,钻人疏松的土层中结薄茧化蛹,蛹期20~30天;成虫 6月上、中旬羽化,成虫夜间活动,有趋光性,当天或隔天交尾产卵,每雌产卵在380余粒;卵产于禾本科杂草下部枯叶边缘、叶卷内,即以卵越冬。[10]故竹林杂草有无和多寡直接影响此虫的发生。[13]

福建省竹林病虫害的防治

根据上述福建省竹秆锈病、竹丛枝病以及竹笋夜蛾的特点及产生的危害,我们可以通过以前对病虫害防治的经验总结得出的相关规律,并研究和利用当今在病虫害防治方面的先进技术和措施,同时根据福建省竹类病虫害的实际情况,制定出相应的防治措施。

3.1 竹秆锈病的防治方法

3.1.1 利用园艺防治的方法

由于湿度大、不通风的地方更容易产生竹秆锈病,因此为了有效降低该种病虫害,首先可以选择在地势高、排水好的地方种植竹类,其次可以砍掉病竹,防治病竹的病菌通过夏孢子的传播影响到更多健康竹子的生长,再次可以加强对竹林类管理,保持合理的竹类结构,从而保证通风,减少竹类病虫害的产生。[14]

3.1.2 利用药物防治的方法

这个可以通过在不同的月份,往竹子上涂抹不同的药物来实现。在3月份,砍除病竹、刮除冬孢子、涂抹煤焦油、煤油或者柴油混合液。在5月份到6月份,用粉锈宁250—500倍液或者0.5波美度的石硫合剂喷洒病竹。在6月份到10月份,用敌锈钠100—150倍液或者0.5—1波美度的石硫合剂喷洒病竹。对于病虫害较轻的病竹,可以在3月中上旬刮除病部的冬孢子和竹青,而对于病虫害较重的病竹,可以在每年5月份、10月份前用氨基苯磺酸喷洒。[14]

经农药防治试验表明,用晶体石硫合剂防治效果最好,连防3年,防治效果达88.1%~98.6%,感病指数为0.54~4.8。70%的代森锰锌和20%粉锈宁次之,效果分别为83.9%~87.6%和84%~87.4%。[14] 

3.1.3 水竹杆锈病是水竹生产中的重要病害[22]

通过3年防治试验,结果表明:连年加强水竹栽培管理,使营林措施科学化是控制本病的有效措施。粉锈灵等化学农药有一定防效,在发病中心使用,见效快,效果好,有防治本病扩展蔓延的作用。通过抗性测定,假毛竹不感染锈病,且材质坚韧,纹理细密,篾性好,适于编织凉席,可推广应用。[14]两种细菌(Tsc_1和Tsc_2)防治竹杆锈病的效果有待进一步研究。[15]

3.2 竹丛枝病的防治方法

3.2.1 加强管理

加强对竹林的抚育及管理,压土施肥,促进新竹的生长,并及早砍除病竹,由于该病竹具有很大的“传染性”的特点,因此,我们要将病害扼杀于摇篮之中,这就需要具体情况具体分析,对于新病区的病竹,要彻底清理,防止其进一步的传播,对于老病区的病竹,要在不影响竹林郁闭度的情况下有选择的进行砍除。[23]

3.2.2 不能在病区挖母竹

建造新竹林时,不能在病区挖取母竹,由于竹丛枝病具有一定的蔓延性,因此很可能将病菌带到土壤中,最终影响整个竹林的土壤,使整个竹林的竹子都带有病菌,因而如果在建造新竹林时选择病区的母竹,只会影响新竹林的健康发育,因此不能在病区挖取母竹。[24]

3.2.3 裁剪病竹

可以在每年组织一定的劳力对竹子的病变部位进行裁剪,这样就会在不毁坏竹子的情况下防止病菌的扩展,从而更好地起到保护竹林和防治竹林病虫害的双重作用。[23]

3.2.4 清除病枝、集中烧毁、喷洒农药

笋用竹丛枝病又称雀巢病、扫帚病、竹疯病。该病发生普遍而严重,当前已成为发展笋用竹生产的一大障碍。研究结果表明:在 3月底到 4月中旬或 9月,清除林中病枝。集中林外烧毁,防治效果达 92 %;清除病枝后喷洒 50 %多菌灵 50 0倍液或 2 5%三唑酮 50 0倍液,防治效果分别可达 99%和 97%;仅喷洒 50 %多菌灵 50 0倍液或 2 5%三唑酮 50 0倍液,每周 1次,连续 3次,防治效果均达 100 %。[23]

3.3 竹笋夜蛾的防治方法

3.3.1 采取人工防治的方法

有一些笋在清晨时笋尖无露珠、笋身无光泽,这就是退笋,退笋是竹笋夜蛾虫害发生的主要源头,这是因为退笋内的幼虫存在率为50%,因此,我们一定要及时挖去退笋,可利用烧毁或碾压方式来清除它。[11]

3.3.2 利用园艺防治的方法

地面杂草越多,就会产生越多的虫子,因此,如果要更好消除虫子,就必须定期清理竹林中的杂草,要彻底清除,烧毁或者碾压,从而彻底清除杂草中的越冬虫卵。[10]

3.3.3 利用物理防治的方法

黑光灯对成虫具有极大的吸引作用,可以利用黑光灯将成虫吸引过来利用烧毁等手段将其消灭。[13]

3.3.4 利用药剂防治的方法

由于竹笋夜蛾为隐秘性害虫,很少爬行,因此利用药物防治是一种必须的选择,可用药为赛丹1500倍液、灭扫利2000倍液、辛硫磷1000倍液等药剂,每7—10天喷洒一次,连续喷洒2—3次,从而消灭竹林内的幼虫,也可在3月中、下旬出笋前对竹林下和周边的杂草上喷洒20%杀灭菊酯乳油l 000~2 000倍液等农药,7~10天喷1次,共需喷2~3次,消灭草上的幼虫。[11]

小结

由以上论述可知,福建省作为中国竹类的第一省,在竹子的种类及数量等方面均具有较大的优势,不仅有很高的观赏价值、生态价值,还有巨大的经济价值,但是福建省现在的竹类病虫害日益猖狂,不仅种类变多、面积扩大,而且发展迅速,导致竹林枝叶稀疏、杆材劣变,林内杂草丛生、营养缺乏,这些都严重影响了竹类价值的实现,因此我们应该从人工防治、园艺防治、药剂防治、物理防治等多个方面采取措施防治竹类病虫害,促进福建省竹类的良好发展。总之福建省病虫害防治任重而道远,我们仍需共同努力。

 

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  • 三农在线. 我国有3500多万名农民从事竹产业[J]. 农村百事通, 2015(11):14-14.
  • 孙守意, 顾志宏, 李先强, 裴冬梅, 赵海燕. 浅谈自然保护区的森林病虫害防治. 吉林林业科技, 2013(01).
  • 于占成, 李春宁, 李欢欢. 几种主要竹类病虫害的防治. 陕西林业科技, 2007(04).
  • 朱天辉, 陈其兵, 胡庭兴. 四川退耕还林区竹类病虫害的控制途径.  四川林勘设计. 2001(02).
  • 孟庆庭, 杨怀光, 孙炜. 竹杆锈病防治试验研究《世界竹藤通讯》,  2007, 5(1):45-47.
  • 吴光金, 冉隆贤, 水竹杆锈病防治试验《经济林研究》, 1992(2):63-67.
  • 朱熙樵, 张九能, 陈建华. 竹杆锈病的发生规律及防治研究《中国森林病虫》, 1983(2).
  • 薛振南, 文凤芝, 全桂生, 黄式玲, 杨秀好.毛竹丛枝病发生流行规律研究《基因组学与应用生物学》,  2005, 24(2):130-135.
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  • 资料来源——“中国园林网” .

 

致谢

感谢四川农业大学网络教育的班主任和指导老师,让我扫清了很多认知盲点,收获了很多新知识,如果不是你们,这篇论文无法完成,请允许我向你们表示诚挚的谢意!祝老师身体健康,万事如意!

浅谈杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征

袁爱兰

 

摘要:研究杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征对于杉木人工林的种植有着重要意义。本文基于此,首先对杉木人工林与土壤微生物群落结构特征的相关理论进行了分析,为后文的研究工作奠定了理论基础,然后从数量分布、垂直分布、季节性变化等不同角度论述了杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征。
关键词:杉木人工林;土壤微生物;群落结构特征

 

1.

杉木人工林是我国南方地区林区的重要森林类型之一,其中杉木作为南方地区亚热带气候下特有的优良树种,对于缓解我国木材需求增长的压力和保护生态环境等方面均有着重要意义。而土壤微生物则是有机物分解过程中的重要承担者,整个微生物群落所表现出的一系列结构特征以及相关的活性组成都对整个人工林生态圈的物质循环以及养分供应有着直接影响,同时,群落特征的变化也反映着整个人工林生态环境下土壤肥力、土壤质量、温度、湿度等一系列因素。在这样的背景下,研究杉木人工林土壤环境与土壤微生物群落结构特征的因果关系,无论是对进一步促进杉木人工林生态环境循环,还是降低不恰当操作导致的土壤负面生态效应均有着积极意义。

2.杉木人工林与土壤微生物群落结构特征的相关理论分析

2.1土壤微生物群落的作用分析

在生物学的研究中,土壤微生物群落往往作为一个极其特别的生物学总体来看待,宏观上而言,土壤微生物群落指的是由同种生物中的不同个体在一定环境下(如土壤)组成的具有相互作用的群体。一般情况下,陆地生态系统中的生物化学过程均需要土壤中的生物参与,例如矿化同化过程、氧化还原过程、有机碳代谢过程等等,因此,土壤微生物群落在生态系统的研究过程中也被称为修复土壤生态环境和降解污染物质的先锋者。此外,土壤微生物还推动者生态系统中的土壤物质转化过程和能量流动过程,例如虽然土壤微生物的含碳量仅仅只占有生态环境中土壤总有机碳的2%,但这部分的有机含碳量却在有机质和无机物的降解转化、植物营养及土壤肥力的保持等方面起到重要作用。因此,研究杉木人工林中壤微生物群落结构特征具有深层次的现实意义。

2.2我国杉木人工林面临的问题分析

杉木在我国南方亚热带地区已有了近千年的栽培历史,相关的栽培制度也随着建国以来我国经济的发展不断趋于完善。根据我国森林资源统计局在2013年公布的数据,我国的杉木林面积已超过18000公顷,蓄积量更是达到了0.47亿平方米,超出了我国人工林蓄积量50%。但现阶段,我国杉木人工林的建设还存在着一些生态问题,主要表现在以下几个方面。其一是我国杉木人工林大多由天然阔叶林砍伐后形成,故与天然阔叶林相比在树种、群落结构、生态多样性方面还不够完善,自身缺乏有效的生态抵抗性。其二是杉木人工林作为人工栽植的群落,较易受到人类活动的干扰,导致林地土壤在物理性质、化学性质、生物性质等多个方面容易发生突变,从而给生态环境带来难以预知的影响。其三是我国近几年来对土壤微生物群落结构特征的相关研究尚处于起步阶段,对于人工林集约经营是否引起土壤衰退、林地的物质代谢和肥力的发展存在何种联系等重要课题还缺乏完善的研究体系,造成实践工作缺乏行之有效的指导体系。

3.杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征的研究方法

本文选用最常用的平板涂布培养法作为杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征的研究方法,具体步骤如下。

3.1样品采集

在杉木人工林地的山脊、山坡、山洼三处设定采样点,采样时每个样品取3份1kg左右共3kg,然后用保鲜袋和透明胶带做好密封与保存工作,在当天带回实验室进行研究。

3.2土壤溶液的配制

将10g待测土壤与90ml经无菌处理的蒸馏水放入250ml三角瓶中,经恒温振荡仪中振荡1h后取出并静置,从而配成最大浓度的稀释液,然后取上层清液与9ml经无菌处理的蒸馏水分别放入不同的试管中,混合均匀后制成浓度按梯次降低的稀释液。

3.3培养基制备

细菌、真菌和放线菌的培养基分别选用牛肉膏蛋白脉琼脂培养基、PDA培养基和高氏1号培养基,具体材料参考常用的材料制备表,完成基本的材料配备工作后,将初步完成的培养基放入37摄氏度温箱中培养一天,确保灭菌工作的彻底进行。

3.4微生物接种与计数

将按梯度配置的土壤溶液用移液器打入灭菌过的培养皿中,按照溶液提出分别倒入培养基中,待到培养基初步凝固后放入不同温度的生化培养箱中进行培养,24小时后进行细菌的计数工作,48小时后进行真菌的计数工作,6天后进行放线菌的计数工作。

4.杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征分析

土壤微生物是土壤的重要组成部分,因此土壤中微生物的种类、数量的分布特征可视为是对土壤肥力和物质循环过程的最直接反映。在杉木人工林生态系统中,占据主要地位的微生物为细菌、真菌、放线菌三大类,其对于有机物的分解、硫、氮化合物的转化起到了最主要的作用。

4.1土壤微生物群落的数量分布

表1为利用显微镜对平板涂布培养法所得的微生物进行数量统计的相关数据,不难发现,无论是哪种土壤层次和立地类型,细菌数量皆在所有的微生物中占据了主要地位,其平均数值分别为山脊的91.69%、山坡的92.83%和山洼的92.71%,在其余两类微生物中,放线菌数量略高于真菌数量。因此,在杉木人工林地土壤微生物中,细菌是有机物质分解转化过程中的最主要的参与者。而即使是在相同土层的不同立地类型中,微生物的数量分布特征也不尽相同。由表1不难得出,山坡的微生物的数量总数大于山脊的微生物的数量,约为山脊的微生物的数量的1.18倍,但低于山洼处的微生物的数量,仅为山洼处微生物的数量的87%。其原因在于山脊处的地形较为陡峭,容易在雨雪天气因雨水大量冲刷造成养分流失,形成较薄的土壤层次也不利于杉木人工林中凋落物的聚集,造成后期微生物群落参与分解活动时,腐生微生物数量严重下降。而山洼处则由于地形呈现出盆地状,在整个杉木林面临相同环境时,山洼处也不易水土流失,这就造成山洼地区的土壤层次较厚、水分含量较多,所带来的较多的林中凋落物的聚集进一步使得土壤中微生物的活动频繁。这也恰恰与杉木人工林中山洼林木生产力远高于山坡和山脊地区的林木生产力的现状相吻合,验证了结果的有效性和正确性。

 

表1:杉木人工林地土壤微生物数量的分布特征(单位:万个/克干土)

立地类型 土层 微生物总数 细菌 真菌 放线菌
山脊 0-20m 32.881 29.333 0.774 2.764
20-40m 27.133 25.196 0.225 1.712
40-60m 11.007 1.233 0.052 0.722
山坡 0-20m 52.661 48.266 0.875 0.722
20-40m 33.021 30.194 0.315 2.512
40-60m 16.826 16.030 0.053 0.733
山洼 0-20m 68.945 62.120 1.055 4.780
20-40m 44.049 40.623 0.528 2.868
40-60m 22.924 21.633 0.103 1.188

 

4.2土壤微生物群落的垂直分布

根据表1中的既得数据,对同种类型的不同土层深度同一种类的微生物数量取加权平均值,建立起相关的线性回归方程如表2所示,计算得出,0-20m土层中微生物总数为52.143万个/克干土、20-40m土层中微生物总数为34.734万个/克干土、但40-60m土层中的微生物总数仅为16.916万个/克干土,且三种微生物的数量分布均符合这种随土层深度数量逐渐降低的垂直分布特征,其中放线菌和真菌更是因为总数量稀少而表现的更为明显。而根据所建立的回归方程,不同微生物的数量和土壤的垂直深度的相关系数均为负,并呈现出显著负相关的态势,其中真菌数量与土壤垂直深度的相关系数最大,为-0.688,细菌和放线菌与土壤垂直深度的相关系数则较低,分别为-0.426和-0.413,不难得出,土壤微生物群落的垂直分布与土壤深度有着密切的联系。这其中的原因体现在三个方面。第一,有机物质会因时间推移逐渐在土壤表层所积累,这这种有机物质作为微生物能量和营养的最主要来源,对微生物的分布起到了至关重要的主导作用。第二,土壤的含水量会随着土壤深度的增加而迅速降低,现阶段生物研究的微生物大多需要在充足水分的情况下生存,因此,表层土壤富裕的含水量吸引着更多微生物的聚集。第三,好气性土壤微生物占据了人工林中土壤微生物群落的60%以上,相较于透气状况较差的深层次土壤,这类好气性土壤微生物更多地在具有丰富密集的植物根系以及优秀通气情况的表层土壤进行繁殖。

 

表2:杉木人工林地土壤微生物的垂直分布线性回归

类别 样本数量 相关系数r
微生物总数 199 -0.461
细菌 199 -0.426
真菌 199 -0.688
放线菌 199 -0.413

 

4.3土壤微生物群落的季节性变化

根据所采集的培养皿的微生物群落数量,得出的其季节性变化特征为春秋高、夏冬低,这与部分学者采用其它人工林进行所得出的春季高、夏秋回归、冬季最低的季节性变化特征存在一定的出入。本文认为这可能与杉木人工林中土壤微生物群落中细菌数量超出90%有关,根据大数定律,在庞大细菌数量的影响下,整个微生物群落的季节性变化特征无限趋向于细菌数量的季节性变化特征,相关的不同季节土壤含水量的不同、不同季节温度的不同成为了土壤微生物群落的次要制约因素。

5.结束语

随着我国科学技术的不断发展,有关人工林中土壤微生物群落结构特征的相关研究也会越来越趋于完善。本研究采用显微镜技术和线性相关系数建立等研究方法对杉木人工林中的微生物群落结构特征进行了简要分析,希望能对相关的研究人员带来一定的帮助。

 

参考文献

[1]王嘉民.杉木人工林土壤微生物群落结构特征[J].企业养殖技术开发,2013(7):18-19.

[2]李晓明.杉木人工林土壤质量演变过程中土壤微生物群落结构变化[J].技术指导,2009(11):81-82.

[3]李蓓,李兴源. 桉树人工林土壤微生物活性与群落功能多样性[J]. 国际林业,2005(3):45-46.

 

浅谈林下经济产业现状及发展重点分析

袁爱兰

【摘要】:林下经济是促进新农村建设,增加农民收入以及拓宽林业经济的一条重要途径,它是一种高效循环林业经济,同时也是发展我国现代化林业经济的一个必经之路。本文首先论述了我国林业经济的发展现状以及存在的有关问题,并在此基础上指出了林下经济产业发展的重点以及策略。

【关键词】:林下经济;现状;发展重点;策略

林下经济产业是以促进广大农民增收为最终目的、以充分维护生态环境安全为前提以及贯彻和落实科学发展观作为指导思想的一种新型经济产业。在实际的发展当中,林下经济产业能够使得森林产业的综合效益以及林地的利用效率得到大幅度提高,通过利用林地的资源优势,促进林下经济产业的更加的深入发展,使其规模化、产业化、集约化发展,最终使得农民的收入增加,转化成为我国林业发展的一个新的经济增长点。

1 我国林下经济产业的发展现状

步入21世纪以来,我国的林下经济取得了迅速的发展。林下经济产业的产生以及发展有着深远的社会背景和历史。在20世纪90年代末期,针对林业发展我国确立了把生态建设作为首要任务的发展战略。伴随着逐步的实现林业建设重点战略,在生态建设方面我们也取得了骄人的成就,生态环境整体得到改善。

我国当前林下经济的发展模式主要有林下种植、林下产品采集加工、森林景观利用和林下养殖4种模式。其中林下种植和林下养殖指的是利用林业产业下的林下资源,适当地发展牧草种植、菌类、药类,或者立体养殖禽畜类产品。采集加工和森林景观利用是二级模式,也就是对林下经济产业的产品资源进行充分的利用,大力的发展销售、加工、流通及旅游、观光产业,从而全面的提高经济效益。在当今的大背景条件之下,林下经济产业以其涉及的流通销售方面广、经济收入的种类多、资源利用率较高及可持续发展性较强等优点,与我国农业发展的需求极其的吻合。

2 我国林下经济产业存在的问题

与传统的林业经济相比,林下经济产业使得我国林业经济的产业链增长,同时也使得农民的经济利益得到了大幅度的提升,但是林下经济依然存在着一些急需解决的问题,现将其简要介绍如下:

(1)林下经济产业的组织领导相应缺乏

在组织化程度方面,我国当前林下经济产业相对较低,这使得对于市场信息不能及时准确的掌握。为此,很难根据市场需求做产品做出合理的调整。与此同时,相较其他产品而言,林下经济产品的销售渠道也较为有限,不能够充分的保障农户的利益,这就导致其不能够实现可持续发展的战略。

(2)林下经济产业缺乏龙头带动

我国当前的林下产业很难实现规模化、产业化、集约化的发展态势,为此就需要有一个龙头企业来更好的带动其发展,借力、借势实现产业化发展,尤其是需要国家在政策上给与有关的支持,通过依靠这些龙头企业使得林下经济产业向产业化逐步的发展。

(3)林下经济产业的扶持政策相对较欠缺

在当今时代,在很多地区都没有针对林下经济产业专门的发展优惠政策和扶持政策,使得很多农户没有前期运转流动资金支持以及启动资金,从而导致林下经济产业的可持续发展受到一定程度的限制。

3 林下经济产业发展的有效策略

3.1 对林下经济产业的金融支持要进一步加强

近年来,国家对于林业实行低利息、长期限的信贷扶持政策,并且也得到了相应的落实。另外,一些金融机构对于个体发展的林下经济产业应该适当的放宽条件,扩大在林业职工和农户的联保贷款和小额信贷,同时林下经济产业经营者也可以依法把林下经济产业资产或者是林木作为抵押来申请贷款。除此之外,相应的单位还应该结合各地区经济社会发展的水平以及林下经济产业建设的特点来进一步的完善和制定贷款使用管理办法,从而更好的调动个汇总投资主体对于林下经济产业建设投资的主动性和积极性。

3.2 以林业体制改革来促进林下经济产业发展

在我国,林业体制改革取得了显著地成绩,同时也为林下经济的发展提供了良好的环境以及政策的支持,林下经济产业应该沿着这个良好的变革趋势。对国家的政策扶持积极寻求,从而使得林下经济产业的发展更加的快速,同时我们也可以将林改当中的成功经验应用到林下经济的发展。对于林下经济资产有偿转让要积极的推进,使得林下经济资产的有偿流转市场尽快建立,林下经济资产评估制度进一步的完善。对于林下经济产品资产使用权要允许其流转,进而促进林下经济产业资产的较为合理流转。在林下经济资产使用权方面,可以依法担保、继承、抵押、入股等,从而使得经营者投资开发的主动性以及积极性得到大幅度的改善。

3.3 政府对于林下经济产业建设的投入要适当的加大

与重大林业基础设施建设和公益林业管理、建设的投资相结合,逐步的加大对林下经济产业建设的资金规模,同时对于财政方面也要适当的加强投入。对于珍贵林下经济产业品种的引进以及林下经济产业重点地区基地建设等政府要对其进行合理的扶持,同时也要逐步的使得各项林下经济产业工程建设方面的相关补助标准更加的规范化。随着逐步深入的重点国有林区改革,国家要给予必要支持,有关地方政府要承担起其应有的职责,使得林业企业有精力、有能力更好的发展林下经济产业,推动林下经济的快速发展。

3.4 制定以及善有林下经济产业的相关优惠政策

制定以及善有林下经济产业的相关优惠政策、增强林下经济产业建设自我发展和自我积累的能力,有助于增加农民投入林下经济产业建设的主动性和积极性。对于优惠政策方面的内容相对较多,如发展林下经济产业的育苗,免收水资源费,同时要保证灌溉用水;发展林下经济产业用电要给予相应的优惠,减少这方面的投入;对发展林下经济产业的森林更新改造免收土地占用费;对于造林成功的一些生态林地,允许林农在这块相应的林地上急需从事有关的林下经济产业,是他们能够受益,充分的跳动主动性,使得林下经济产的稳定发展有足够的保证。

4.林下经济可持续发展的案例分析

4.1实例概况——以福建省武平县为例

本次研究以福建省武平县的林下经济发展为研究对象,福建省武平县是位于我国南方的一个集体林区县。全县土地面积为397.7万亩,林业用地占了82.85%为329.5万亩。森林覆盖率高达79.7%。武平县的林业用地包括240.6万亩商品林以及88.9万亩生态林。在该县进行集体经济林权改革之后,林下经济得到了较大的、快速的发展。集体林地的承包到户为武平县的林下经济的发展奠定了良好的政策基础,促进了该县林下经济的多样、繁荣、快速的发展,实现了林区农民的致富之路。另一方面,在森林生态环境以及林地资源的依托下,林下养殖业、种植业、森林旅游业以及林产品加工业等方面得到了发展。

4.2武平县林下经济发展现状

福建省武平县的林下经济发展氛围林下种植、林下养殖、林下产品采集加工以及林下旅游四个方面。其经济发展状况见下表1。

表1武平县林下经济发展现状

经济类型 面积(公顷) 产值(万元)
林下种植 2874.7 62230.5
林下养殖 2771.62 5449.52
林下产品采集加工 5507.5 7330.6
林下旅游 281.2 1329

其中林下种植的种类主要包括五个方面。第一,林药种植,主要种植药物金线莲、红豆杉、草珊瑚、金银花、紫珠、茯苓、太子参、杜仲。林药面积约359公顷,产值40947.4万元。第二,林菌。主要包括香菇、林芝、木耳,55.1公顷,产值510.1万元。第三,林果。主要种类包括桃、李、萘、梨、桑葚、杨梅,1163.8公顷,产值15174万元。还有脐橙,54.5公顷,产值82万元。林果面积1218.3公顷,产值15256万元。第四,林茶。主要种植茶叶293.5公顷,产值1637万。第五,工业原料林。主要种植无患子,面积10332公顷,产值480万。

林下养殖包括六个方面。第一,林禽。主要养殖象洞鸡,面积1241公顷,共59.285万羽,产值3073.65万元。第二,林畜。包括牛、兔、羊、竹鼠,675.5公顷,79617头,产值931.88万元。第三,林蜂。主要为蜜蜂,10178箱;产值1286.99万。第四,林蛙。主要包括棘胸蛙、牛蛙,9.11公顷,15.8万只,产值40.3万元。

第五,林驯繁。主要为豪猪等,14.5公顷,11256头;产值89万元。第六,林鱼。鱼,3公顷,27.7万元。

林下产品采集加工包括五个方面。第一,竹笋,3780公顷,年产2390.5吨,产值1073.6万。第二,竹产品,1300公顷,年产30000吨,产值472万元。第三,油茶采集加工,667公顷,年产85吨,产值1020万元。第四,松脂,443吨,产值415万。第五,菌类采集,18596公顷,产值4350万元。

林下旅游业,面积281.2公顷,产值1329万元,带动从业305人。

从武平县的林下经济发展来看,该县林下产业种类较多,呈现出多种产业竞相发展的状态,该县以林下种植的产值最高,林下产品加工所涉及的面积最广,四种林下经济发展模式为该县的经济产值的提高做出了重大贡献,同时也带动了该县的人员就业。另一方面,四种经济发展模式交相进行即形成了对森林资源的充分利用的局势,也实现了产业化的发展模式。各个产业之间相互促进,实现了林下经济的可持续发展。

 

 

结束语

与其他产业相比而言,林下经济产业具有见效快、潜力大、投入少等优势,它是一种新型林业发展的模式,对于开辟农民增收新渠道、增加林业产品附加值、巩固我国生态建设成果以及促进我国林业可持续发展方面有着重要的意义。虽然在其发展过程当中取得了显著的成就,但是依旧存在着一些实际问题,我国政府以及相关部门应给给予资金和政策方面的扶持,从而使得林下经济实现可持续的发展。

 

【参考文献】

[1]秦玉红. 林下经济产业现状及发展重点分析[J]. 中国农业信息, 2013, 21: 278.

[2]胡佳. 我国林下经济发展现状及影响因素分析[D]. 中南林业科技大学, 2013.

[3]于小飞. 林下经济产业现状及发展重点分析[A]. 中国林学会.第九届中国林业青年学术年会论文摘要集[C]. 中国林学会: 2010: 1.

[4]张云翔. 林下经济产业现状与发展重点[J]. 南方农业, 2014, 12: 84-86+89.

[5]杨新莉. 林下经济产业现状及发展趋势探讨[J]. 中国农业信息, 2014, 09: 275.

 

浅谈不同林龄马尾松凋落物基质质量与土壤养分的关系

袁爱兰

摘要:森林中植物的凋落物分解可以促进陆地生态系统的营养物质平衡,这包括了有机养分与土壤有机质的矿化、碳平衡的形成等等。土壤养分状况完全取决于它的质量、数量以及分解的速率。在我国福建省龙岩市武平县的捷文村水库库区,就有这样一种可以显著影响陆地生态系统中土壤养分的植物,它就是马尾松。据科学试验表明,捷文水库不同林龄的马尾松凋落物基质质量与土壤养分有着一定的作用差异,比如近熟成马尾松林凋落物的叶木质素/N就比中龄林与成熟林的叶木质素/N高33.5%左右。本文就将以捷文水库库区生态环境保护区域中马尾松林的凋落物作为核心素材,探讨了它的分解、基质质量,并结合试验分析了不同林龄条件下马尾松凋落物与土壤养分之间的动态关系。

关键词:马尾松;凋落物;林龄;基质质量;土壤养分;分解;关系;捷文水库

 

据统计,森林土壤中碳库的存储含量占到了全球总含量的40%以上,森林中每年约20Gt的有机质中就有70%是植物凋落物的分解所提供的。也就是说在森林系统中但凡土壤营养系统出现细微的变化,整个地球的地-气碳交换都会受到影响,大气中的CO2浓度也会发生大幅改变,所以森林生态系统是大自然的天然氧吧这一说法毫不为过。在我国的福建省龙岩市——捷文水库库区拥有着大面积的生态环境保护区,这里的马尾松林作为捷文水库库区的主要植被类型,每年都会产生大量的凋落物,这些凋落物的基质质量经过天然分解,与土壤中的养分间形成作用关系,深层次的改善了土壤中的养分循环系统,对提高森林生产体系中的能量流动与物质循环有重要意义。

 

一、凋落物的分解研究

(一)凋落物的分解

    在森林中,凋落物的分解可以为植物供应磷和氮等多种重要营养物质,而它分解所释放的碳含量也是大气燃烧释放的10倍以上。通常讲,凋落物的分解主要有两个阶段,在第一阶段,凋落物会被动物的啃食或土壤的腐蚀分解为碎片;第二阶段,凋落物的有机质碎片会进一步被真菌和细菌等微生物所腐蚀,逐渐矿化成为像磷、氨、水和二氧化碳等。所以说,凋落物的分解在让其自身体积变小的同时,碳浓度也会有所降低,是一个有机质转化为无机化合物的矿质化过程。德国生物学家Berg就曾经研究了新鲜植物凋落物的分解速率,他发现凋落物的分解每天都会以0.001%~0.1%不等的速率进行,随着分解凋落物中的顽固化学有机复合物逐渐增多,它们就会阻止凋落物后期的继续分解,因为凋落物越新鲜,它的N含量才越高,只有在这样的条件下有机物的淋失才越快。凋落物分解速率在该科学领域的研究属于主要内容,在捷文库区的冬季,凋落物的分解物质会大量释放养分帮助处于休眠期的植物贮存能量以便于它们在春天的生长。在春天即将到来之前,冻融的变化效应会改变凋落物的基质质量从而改善凋落物的后期分解过程,让森林中植物系统的碳循环等营养系统处于均衡的良性循环状态。

(二)林龄与凋落物分解的关系

经研究表明,植物凋落物的分解速率与年龄的增长有关,本文所选取的是捷文库区的25年生 (YS=younger stand with20years old)、30年生(MS=middle-aged stand with30years old)、40年生(OS=older stand with46years old)三种马尾松林,这三种林根据林龄的不同,分解速率显现出的差异并不明显,这说明了分解速率与林龄的相关性较小。究其主要原因还是因为凋落物的分解速率主要与自然气候中的土壤水分含量、森林中温度、基质质量以及土壤养分等因素有关。另外由于自然环境日益恶劣而出现的微气候变暖情况也可能影响到凋落物的分解速率。

(三)水分含量与土壤温度与马尾松凋落物分解的关系

从土壤的年平均温度与水分含量两个角度分析,30年生马尾松林与25年及40年生林略有差异。当30年生马尾松林的土壤年平均温度在16.23℃时,25年生与40年生林的温度约为12.30℃和12.88℃,它们的温度均低于30年生林,并且水分含量也较比30年生林低6.63%与6.20%。

在捷文库区,这3种马尾松林的水分含量与土壤温度的月动态也有些许变化,例如它们的土壤平均温度都表现出了1月最低、7月最高的状态。其中它们在7月的土壤温度以OS(21.22℃)<YS(22.09℃)<MS(24.30℃)排列,在1月则为OS(2.10℃)<YS(2.58℃)<MS(4.33℃)。在水分含量方面,3种马尾松林也呈现出不同的态势。20年生的马尾松林在1月水分含量最低,只有19.13%,到了8月最高,能达到24.11%;30年生林9月最低(12.77%),12月最高(18.31%);46年生林5月最低(15.32%),12月最高(24.42%)。从以上数据分析看出,凋落物的分解速率与土壤温度、水分含量有关系但关系并不密切,并没有表现出明显的线性关联。从另一个角度讲,凋落物的剩余率与温度应该是呈现反比趋势的,也就是说在一定的范围内随着温度的升高,凋落物的分解速率也就越快、土壤水分含量就越高[1]

 

图1马尾松林凋落物的分解剩余率与水分含量及土壤温度的关系示意图

 

二、凋落物基质质量与土壤养分的关系

    凋落物的基质质量应该与土壤氧化含量变化相同,当凋落物的基质质量越高时,土壤中的养分含量也就越高。所以针对25年生与40年生两种马尾松林的凋落物来说,它们都含有相对较高的基质质量和土壤养分含量,但是30年生林的基质质量最差。欧洲方面在2005年的研究中就发现凋落物的基质质量在养分较高的时候释放快,而养分较低时则反之。对于马尾松林来说,它的基质质量中的碳(C)、碳氮比(C/N)、碳磷比(C/P),木质素/N的比、木质素/P的比都呈现明显差异。所以说马尾松林的凋落物养分释放去向与节奏都与这些物质比例有关。从3种马尾松林的分析看,它们的释放速度应该是30年生(MS)<40年生(OS)<25年生(YS)。这种土壤养分与基质质量的关系,与林龄和凋落物分解的关系近似,都是随着林龄的增长,凋落物所消耗的养分与养分归还率会逐渐变慢。

另外,凋落物的基质质量与土壤肥力和有机养分的数量质量都有关系。因为受肥的林地土壤表层富含氮、碳、磷等物质,它们的比例越高,凋落物初始分解物中的N与P剩余含量比例越低。那么25年生林的C/N比在土壤表层养分中是最高的(13.10),30年生林则最低(12.44)。C/P方面则是40年生林最高(108.43),30年生林最低(36.87)。通过两种土壤养分物质的比较发现30年无论在哪一方面都呈现最低,这说明了30年生林土壤是最不利于凋落物基质质量中P和N的释放的[2]

三、具体试验研究

(一)凋落物与土壤样品的采样

首先采集马尾松林凋落物,选材为25年生、30年生、40年生三种不同林龄的凋落物,并用孔径为1mm,尺寸大小为1mx1m的尼龙网收集器10个放置于马尾松林下距离地面50cm的高度进行收集,每月进行1次收集。收集后将凋落物进行70℃的烘干并称重。将三种林龄的凋落物中分别抽取30个样品进行粉碎后的碎片化学分析,主要测量这些凋落物纤维中碳、氮、磷、木质素、纤维素等等的具体含量和养分平衡。

土壤方面则在不同林龄的马尾松林植物下进行采集,采取1mx1m面积的小样各5个,将这些小样进行加工混合,生成每种林龄各8个样品,然后进行风干,然后按照1mm和0.25mm的规格过筛,最后放入3℃的冷藏室进行保存。

(二)计算

首先要计算马尾松林的凋落物养分年归还量以及周转系数:

 

在公式中,Lα代表了马尾松林凋落物的年归还总量,Lij是在i月的第i组的凋落物基质质量,而Cij则表示为在i月的第j组的凋落物具体养分含量。所以推算出凋落物的周转系数应该为:K=凋落物年产量/凋落物现存量[3]

在计算出凋落物的养分年归还量与周转系数后,就要运用Canoco与SPSS软件进行数据分析统计并作图。计算出凋落物基质质量与土壤养分之间的变量关系,而他的显著性检验则采用了ANOVA,即单因子方差分析法进行,设定显著性水平为α=0.07,则可计算凋落物基质物质与土壤养分之间的变量关系。

(三)试验结果对比

1土壤有机质养分与总氮

经过试验表明,3种不同林龄马尾松林的土壤有机质与总氮变化保持一致,且发展趋势也相同,呈现出YS<MS<OS的态势。当土壤深度在5cm之内时,即土壤接近表层的有机质与总氮含量最高,而再深入到20cm左右则有机质与总氮含量最小,这表明了土壤深度越深它的营养成分就越低。在这一点上,YS的变化最小,而具有明显变化的是MS和OS,它们在5cm、10cm、20cm三个土壤层次中的有机质与总氮含量是YS的3.18、1.83倍以及2.47、1.77倍。所以说,土壤深度越深,它的有机质影响力也就会越低,因此土壤的总氮含量与土壤有机质有关,也就是土壤中的总氮含量会跟随土壤有机质的增加而增加。如图2.

 

图2不同林龄马尾松林土壤环境下有机质与总氮的含量对比图

2土壤有效磷与总磷

再看磷含量,马尾松林土壤中磷含量与土壤本质、成土条件以及耕作施肥等等都有关系。总磷说明土壤中各形态磷的指标总和,而有效磷则代表了土壤的供磷水准。如图3.

 

图3不同林龄马尾松土壤环境下总磷与有效磷的含量对比图

由图3可知,不同林龄的马尾松林在土层深度方面会有减小趋势,但是每一土层的变化比较细微。在这里有效磷的变化与马尾松林年龄的变化规律不同,同样是土壤深度的增加过程中,OS表现出有效磷先增加后降低,YS与MS则是先降低后增加。所以它们之间有效磷的含量比较是YS<MS<OS。

(四)结论分析

经3种不同林龄的马尾松林在基质质量方面的研究表明,3种马尾松林在它们凋落物的N、K、P和其它营养物质方面体现了含量上的明显差异,它们的主要基质质量来源于凋落物的皮质,其原因与动物的啮噬及粪便有关,所以它们的养分含量较高。由于马尾松凋落物基质质量有着养分越高释放越快、低养分释放慢的特点。所以马尾松凋落物的基质质量中各个元素的比例差异也较为明显。而不同林龄的马尾松在凋落物与养分释放上的比较基本呈现YS<OS<MS的态势。另一方面,土壤的肥力与有机质养分含量与质量也决定了凋落物的基质质量,正分解凋落物中初始N/P的剩余物比例会随着土壤表层N、P、C的比例升高而减小,经过试验表明MS的土壤养分并不利于凋落物基质质量的释放,而其它的OS和YS则相对情况较好,这也说明了土壤养分对凋落物基质质量的养分释放存在一个周转系数的影响关系。

总结:

    经过对三种不同林龄马尾松林的凋落物分解、土壤养分、基质质量等进行分析与试验表明了马尾松凋落物的基质质量与土壤养分是有着密切的作用关系的。也就是说其凋落物基质质量的各个元素诸如N、P、C、木质素等等之间的比例越高,就越不利于土壤有机质的形成,土壤的养分积累效率也就越低。但是在不同林龄马尾松林之间的比较却发现,它们的变化规律却基本保持一致,说明土壤养分的含量决定了基质质量养分的高低。所以说,凋落物基质质量与土壤养分之间的作用是复杂的、相辅相成的。

参考文献:

[1] 葛晓改. 三峡库区马尾松林凋落物分解及对土壤碳库动态的影响研究[D].中国林业科学研究院,2012.43-66.

[2] 王进.土壤基质与凋落物分解互作效应的研究[D].华中农业大学,2014.12-17.

[3] 葛晓改,肖文发,曾立雄等.不同林龄马尾松凋落物基质质量与土壤养分的关系[J].生态学报,2012,32(3):852-862.

 

 

生态翻译学视角下的英译元曲200首研究

硕士学位论文

生态翻译学视角下的英译元曲200首研究

A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu

Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

学校代码:10357

学号:G2010020M

密级:

学 号
G201002060

姓 名
袁刚

学科专业
外国语言学及应用语言学

研究方向
翻译理论与实践

指导教师
朱小美教授

完成时间
2013年4月
独创性声明

本人声明所呈交的学位论文是本人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的

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A Study oil An English Translation of200 Yuanqu

Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

By

Yuan Gang

Under the supervision of

Professor. Zhu Xiaomei

A thesis

submitted in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Arts to the School of Foreign Studies

Anhui University

April 2013
Acknowledgements

Upon tihe c(?npletion of this thesis, I would like to show my gratitude to all the

teachers and friends who have helped me.

Firstly, my deepest gratitude goes to my supervisor, Prof. Zhu Xiaomei, who is

always considerate, encouragbg, and patient During my preparation of this thesis,

she provided me with her enlightening and invaluable suggestions, which are essential

to the completion of this thesis.

Secondly, my sincere gratitude goes to all the teachers in the School of Foreign

Studies who have taught me linguistics and translation during my three-year study.

They are Prof. Zhou Fangzhu, Prof. Zhu Yue, Prof. Zhan Quanwang, Prof. Zhang

Ming, Dr. Yang Ling, Dr. Hu Jian, and Dr. Zhu Yubin. Without their excellent teaching

and wonderful lectures, it would have been impossible for me to complete this thesis.

Finally, I want to thank all my classmates, who have offered assistance and

support during my graduate study.
Abstract

The Yuanqu peoms are great treasure of Chinese culture, which are as important

as the Tang poetry, the Song lyrics, and the novels of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

They form an important landmark in Chinese literary history. Yuanqu poems have

been passed down and appreciated by many readers. Many Yuanqu poems have been

translated into foreign languages and appreciated by foreign readers and scholars.

Among the translated works of Yuanqu poems, Professor Zhou Fangzhu’s An English

Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems is an outstanding one. However, compared with the

study on the translation of the Tang poetry and the Song lyrics, the study of the

translation of Yuanqu poems is less. With the development of translation studies and

the prosperity of translation theories,more and more scholars begin to study the

translation of Yuanqu poems from different angles. This research will study the

translation of Yuanqu poems from Eco-translatology.

Professor Hu Gengshen put forward the Eco-translatology in 2008. He analyzed

the translation process from the perspective of ecology, generalizing the selection of

translations into the translator’s adaptation to the translational eco-environment5 and

the translator’s selection under the guidance of the translational eco-environment.

Eco-translatology deems that the translation activity, as all the other activities in the

natural world, should adapt to the “nature”,which refers to every factor influencing

the translation and is defined as “translational eco-environment”,consisting of the

source language, source text, target language, target reader, and the social

environment of the translator’s time, etc. This theory also holds that the translator’s

selection of the target text is based on his or her multi-dimensional adaptation to the

translational eco-environment. If the translator couldn’t well adapt himself to the

translational ecoenvironment,his choice of the target text would be doomed to fail

from the very beginning. Eco-translatology forms its own approach to studying

translation by researching the translation process from a macroscopic way. It directs

researchers to evaluate the quality of the translated versions from their translation

processes and holds that the excellent translation results from the translator’s perfect
adaptation to the translational eco-environment and adaptive transformation from the

three dimensions of language, culture, and communication.

This study explores Professor Zhou’s translation process from the perspective of

Eco-translatology, aiming to answer the following questions:

Firstly,is Professor Zhou’s translation process a process of adaptation and

transformation?

Secondly, if it is, what does Professor Zhou adapt to in the translational

eco-environment of Yuanqu poems?

Thirdly, how does Professor Zhou transform from the three dimensions?

The research methodology of this study is descriptive and textual analysis. The

author goes through Professor Zhou Fangzhu’s An English Translation of200 Yuanqu

Poems and analyzes the translations in the book one by one from the perspective of

Eco-translatology. Based on the analysis,the author finds out that:

Firstly, Professor Zhou’s translation process is a process of adaptation and

transformation.

Secondly, in the process of adaptation, Professor Zhou not only adapts himself to

the internal translational eco_environment with the translator as the center, including

the translators need and competence but also adapts himself to the external

translational eco-environment with various elements as centers,including the source

text, the target reader and the mainstream ideology of the translator’s time.

Thirdly, in the process of transformation,since Professor Zhou has already

adapted himself to the translational eco-environment,his adaptive transformation

from the three dimensions perfectly meets the requirement of the translational

eco-environment. In linguistic dimension, he not only retains the form of the original

text but also realizes the beauty of sound; in cultural dimension, he compensates the

loss of information by addition and annotation; in communicative dimension, he

reduces the degree of difficulty of understanding by translating the denotation of the

image and leaves the target reader the room to imagine by reproducing the poetic

imagery.

This study hopes to provide the translation of Yuanqu poems with plausible

iii
translation strategies and methods.

Key words: transnational eca-environment; adaptation; selection; three dimensional

transformations; the translation ofYbanqu poems

iv
故 面
惘安

元曲是中华民族的文化瑰宝,与唐诗宋词明清小说鼎足并举,是我国文学史

上一座重要的里程碑。元曲流传至今,深受人们的喜爱,其中不少已被译成外国

语言,得到了外国读者和学者的赞赏。其中,周方珠先生的《英译元曲200首》

是较为成功的一个译本。然而,与对唐诗宋词翻译的研究相比,国内外对元曲翻

译的研究较少。随着翻译研究的深入发展和翻译理论的繁荣,越来越多的学者开

始从不同的角度研究元曲翻译。本文将从生态翻译学的角度研究元曲翻译。

胡庚申教授2008年提出的生态翻译学,从生态学的角度剖析了翻译的过程,

将翻译过程归结为译者对翻译生态环境的适应和在翻译生态环境指导下做出的

选择两方面。该理论认为,翻译活动和所有其他的自然界的活动一样,都需要适应

自然,在翻译过程中,所谓的“自然”指的是所有制约翻译活动的因素,统称为“翻

译生态环境”,它包括源语、原文、目的语、目的语读者和社会历史环境等一系

列相关因素。该理论认为译者对于目的语文本的选择是以自身对生态环境多维适

应为基础的,如果译者在翻译的过程中不能多维地适应生态环境的要求,其所做

出的选择也会被自然淘汰。生态翻译学着眼于从宏观的角度研究整个翻译过程,

引导研究者从翻译过程的角度来评价译作的优劣,认为优秀的译本一定是适应了

翻译生态环境,并实现了三维转换的译本。

本文从生态翻译学角度研究周方珠先生的《英译元曲200首》的翻译过程,

旨在回答以下研究问题:

第一、周方珠先生的翻译过程是不是一个适应与选择的过程?

第二、如果是,周方珠先生怎样适应元曲翻译生态环境?

第三、周先生怎样实现了三维转换?

本研究主要采用描述性和文本分析的研究方法。本文作者仔细研读了《英译

元曲200首》并从生态翻译学的角度认真分析了文中的例子。研究发现:

第一、周方珠先生的翻译过程是一个适应与选择的过程。

第二、在适应的过程中,周先生不仅适应了以译者为中心的内部翻译生态

环境,而且适应了以源文本、目的语读者和译者时代的主流意识为中

心的外部翻译生态环境。

第三、在转换的过程中,由于周先生己经适应了元曲翻译的生态环境,他在

V
三个维度的适应性转换过程中满足了翻译生态环境的要求。在语言维方面,周先

生不仅在译文中保留了原作的形式,而且实现了原作的音美;在文化维方面,周

先生通过补充和加注弥补了译文中文化信息的流失;在交际维方面,周先生通过

将原作意象直接译成其指称来降低目的语读者的理解难度,促进了交际目的的实

现,通过在译文中还原原文意象,为目的语读者留下了想像的空间。

本研究希望为元曲翻译提供可行的翻译策略和方法,提高元曲翻译质量。

关键词:翻译生态环境;适应;选择;三维转换;元曲翻译
Contents

Acknowledgements…………………………………………….
i

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii

摘要
: v

Contents
vii

Chapter One Introduction
1

1.1 Research Background
1

1.2 Research Objectives
2

1.3 Research Methodology
2

1.4 Organization of the Thesis
2

Chapter Two Literature Review
4……4

2.1 An Overview ofYuanqu Poems
4

2.2 Previous Studies of Translation ofYuanqu Poems
5

2.2.1 Domestic Studies
5

2.2.2 International Studies
7

2.3 Significance of the Thesis
9

Chapter Three Theoretical Framework
10

3 ? 1 Formation and Development of Eco-translatology
10

3.2 Philosophical Basis
??
12

3.3 Translation Process and Standard
14

3.4 Translation Principle and Translation Method
15

3.5 Applicability of Eco-translatology in the translation ofYuanqu Poems 16

Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in the

Translation ofYuanqu Poems
18

4.1 Translational Eco-environment of Translation of Yuanqu Poems
19

4.2 Adaptation to the Internal Translational Eco-environment
20

4.2.1 Adaptation toTranslator’s Need
20

4.2.2 Adaptation toTranslator’s Competence
23

vii
4.3ProfessOT Zhou’s Adaptation to the External Translational Eco-environment ..…25

4.3.1 Source Text
25

4.3.2 Social Environment
26

4.4 Adaptive Transformation from Three Dimensions
28

4.4.1 Adaptive Transformation from the Linguistic Dimension
29

4.4.2 Adaptive Transformation from the Cultural Dimension
34

4.4.3 Adaptive Transformation from the Communicative Dimension 40

Chapter Five Conclusion ………………… ………?……..—…..45

5.1 Major findings and Implications of the study

45

5.2 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research
:..45

Works Cited 47

Publications
49

viii
Chapter One Introduction

Chapter One Introduction

This chapter introduces the research background, the research objectives and the

research methodology of this study. It also presents the organization of this study.

1.1 Research Background

China is world famous for its long history and rich traditional culture. Many

classic works are influential ftom the time they were created and have been

appreciated by both Chinese and foreign readers. Among them, Yuanqu poems play an

important role in both Chinese culture and world culture and gain world-wide praise

due to its unique style and outstanding artistic achievement. The Yuan Dynasty

(1271-1368) was the first central government established by a minority, during which

ethnic fusion developed rapidly, and different cultures communicated prosperously.

This created a perfect environment for the development of Yuanqu poems which are a

fruit of ethnic cultural fusion. Yuanqu poems become as famous as the Tang Poetry

and the Song lyrics and establish its high status in Chinese and the world literature.

First, Yuanqu poems,as a fruit of ethnic cultural fusion; have had a constant influence

on the development of world culture under globalization. Second,the unique style,

rhyme and paralleled structure in Yuanqu poems lead to studies of the evolution of

Chinese under the circumstance of domestic ethnic fusion. Many famous Yuanqu

poems are not only popular in China but also in foreign countries, such as Ma

Zhiyuan’s Autumn Thought To the Tune of Sky-clear Sand, which reminds people

traveling far from home of overwhelming homesickness with an autumn picture.

Since China implemented the reform and opening up policy, more and more

Chinese literature has been translated into English and other languages. The

translation of Yuanqu poems has also attracted much attention from translators and

scholars. Many foreign translation theories are used to guide and analyze the

translation of Yuanqu poems. The present study adopts Eco-transatology, a native

Chinese translation theory by Professor Hu Gengshen to explore Professor Zhou

Fangzhu’s An English Version of200 Yuanqu Poems.

1
A Study on An ^glish Jhmslation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
1.2 Research Objectives

As an essential part of China’s literature, Yuanqu poems bear as high status as the

Tang poetry, the Song lyrics and the novels of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Professor

Zhou Fan群hu is one of the most influential translators in the translation of Yuanqu

poems and his An English Version of 200 Yuanqu Poems is a good version that

deserves research attention.

This study explores the Professor Zhou’s translation process from the perspective

of Eco-translatology and testifys the feasibility and explanatory force of

Eco-translatology in the translation of Yuanqu poems. This study aims to answer the

following questions:

Firstly, is Professor Zhou’s translation process a process of adaptation and

transformation?

Secondly, if it is, what does Professor Zhou adapt to in the translational

eco-environment of Yuanqu poems?

Thirdly, how does Professor Zhou transform from the three dimensions?

1.3 Research Methodology

The research methodology of this study is descriptive and textual analysis. The

author has read Professor Zhou Fangzhu’s An English Translation of 200 Yuanqu

Poems carefully, and analyzes his translations in the book one by one from the

perspective of Eco-translatology. Due to tiie limited space of tiiis thesis,the author can

only choose some typical translations in the book as the examples.

1.4 Organization of the Thesis

This thesis consists of five chapters.

The first chapter is introduction. In this chapter, the author introduces the

research background, research objectives, research methodology, and organization of

the thesis.

The second chapter is literature review. In this chqrter, the author introduces an

overview of Yuanqu poems followed by previous studies on the translation of Yuanqu

poertis^ and then discusses the significance of this study and ends this chapter with a

2
Chapter One Ihtroduc^n

summary.

TTie third chapter is the theoretical framework for this study. The author

introduces the background, philosophical basis, translation process and standard,

translation principle and metiiod of Eco-Translatology. In the end of this chapter, the

author further demonstrates the applicability of Eco-Translatology to the translation of

Yuanqu poems.

The fourth chapter is the core of this thesis. In this chapter, the author first

analyzes translational eco-environment of Professor Zhou Fangzhu’s An English

Translation of 200 Yuanqu Poems and divides translational eco-environment into

internal translational eco-environment and external translational eco-environment.

Then the author describes Professor Zhou’s adaptive transformation from linguistic

dimension, cultural dimension and communicative dimension.

The fifth chapter draws a conclusion of the thesis. In this chapter, the author

presents the findings and limitations of this study, and offers suggestions for future

studies.

3
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

Chapter Two Literature Review

This chapter presents an overview of Yuanqu poems, previous studies of translation

of Yuanqu poems and the significance of this study. In the end,the author concludes

this chapter with a summary.

2.1 An Overview of Yuanqu Poems

Yuanqu poems are great treasure in traditional Chinese culture. They embody

unique content and artistic features,share as high status as the Tang dynasty poetry

and the Song dynasty lyrics,and become one of the three most important landmarks

in Chinese literature history.

It is widely believed that Yuanqu poems have three sources. The first and most

important one is the Song lyrics, the second one is vulgar ballad or popular music

among ordinary people,and the third is the melody and music of minority groups,

which was also called “battle cries of the northern and western tribes” or “songs of

cavalry,,by famous scholar Xu Wei in the Ming dynasty (Zhao Yishan 2004: 7).

Yuanqu poems are the interchange and interplay of different cultures and literary

works of various ethnics and places all over the country (Deng Yuanxuan, 1997:83).

The study of the source of Yuanqu poems reveals its relationship to the Tang

poetry and the Song lyrics. Confucius once said that poetry serves to inspire,reflect,

commune, criticize, and act as the voice of mind. Inspiration to the mind,reflection

of the time,communion with the Heaven and criticism on the evil can all be found in

Yuanqu poems, worthy successor to the ancient literary tradition. However, as China

was ruled by Mongols at that time and intellects were assigned the social status only

higher than the beggar,“in Yuanqu poems the Tang heroism degenerated into

pessimism. Song rationalism into passivism^ their lyricism popularized,but their

criticism continued and colloquialism developed”. (Xu Yuanchong: 2004: 7)

Yuanqu poems have developed the form of the Song lyrics, even though they

share similar short-and-long lines and tone patterns with the Song lyrics. Firstly,the

4
Chapter Two Literature Review

line length is much more flexible than that of the Song lyrics which is usually fixed.

Additional words,even sentences, can be used in Yuanqu poems in addition to what is

required by the melody, while this is forbidden in the Song lyrics. In rhyme, Yuanqu

poems also “break the conventional tone pattern of poetry and lyrics that level and

oblique tones are not allowed to rhyme alternately,thus creating new tone patterns.

For example,apply four tones (level,rising, falling and entering tones) at the same

level, use one rhyme throughout the song, let each line rhyme,and tolerate the

repetitive rhymes.”(Gu Zhengkun 2004: 13)

As Yuanqu poems combine traditional poetry, lyrics, folk song and vulgar ballad,

linguistically speaking,Yuanqu poems are inclined to use everyday colloquial speech,

the idioms and the slangs of common people,even with a very straightforward style,

which greatly influences the innovation and development of poetry and lyrics. Yuanqu

poems also become a literary form that connects the Tang poetry and the Song lyrics

with the novels of the Ming and Qing dynasties.

2.2 Previous Studies of Translation of Yuanqu Poems

Previous studies of the translation of Yuanqu poems will be discussed from two

aspects: domestic studies and international studies.

2.2.1 Domestic Studies

Yuanqu poems have been studied the moment they were composed. Famous

scholar Wang Guowei (1877-1927) once said that Yuanqu poems are the most popular

and fruitful literature in the Yuan Dynasty,which inspired subsequent scholars to

focus on the study of Yuanqu poems. Another famous scholar,Sui Shusen,spent

seventeen years on the collection and edition of all the existing Yuanqu poems into an

anthology entitled Quart Yuan Sanqu (全元散曲),which became the best and most

widely-used material for domestic and international scholars to study Yuanqu poems.

Their efforts bring us so much convenience to appreciate and enjoy this valuable

cultural treasure.

When it comes to the translation of Yuanqu poems,domestic studies of the

translation of Yuanqu poems started relatively late compared with the study of the
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
translation of the Tang poetry and the Song lyrics. With Yuanqu poems translation as

the theme, the author searched the CNKI and found that there are totally 64 papers

about the translation of Yuanqu poems from 1989 to 2012 and more and more scholars

are paying attention to the translation of Yuanqu poems.

Domestic study of the translation of Yuanqu poems begins with A Discussion

from German Translation of Yuanqu Poems to the Translation of Yuanqu Poems by

Zhang Weilian in 1989,in which he introduced German translator Alfred Forke,s and

Vincenz Hundhausen’s translated Yuanqu poems and his own opinion on the

translation of Yuanqu poems that if one wants to enjoy all the beauty contained in

Yuanqu poems,they had better read the original text on their own (Zhang Weilian

1989: 2). Zhang Jimo introduced his own translation of several Yuanqu poems and

discussed his translation process. He argues that the translation of Yuanqu poems

should keep the cultural deposits,the beauty and the rhyme (Zhang Jimo 1993; 88).

Zhang Jimo (1994: 85) added that the form is an important part of the translation. Li

Mingbin did his research on Sorokin, one of the most famous translators of Yuanqu

poems in the former Soviet Union. He holds that Sorokin gains his reputation as a

famous scholar in the translation of Yuanqu poems by systematically studying other

Russian scholars who studies the translation of Yuanqu poems (Li Mingbin 1998: 135).

Zhang Jing compared Xu Yuanchong’s translation of Yuanqu poems and Gu

Zhengkun’s, and came to the conclusion that both translated works reach the harmony

between fidelity and beauty (Zhang Jing, 2006). Sun Banggen appreciated and

analyzed Gu Zhengkun’s 150 Masterpieces in Yuanqu Poetry and found that Gu’s

translations reproduce the imagery, musical and formal beauty of Yuanqu poems (Sun

Banggen 2008: 120). Chen Ningning (2008: 84) compared four translated versions of

Tianjingsha- Qiusi, discussed the extent of translatability of poetry translation and

arrived at the conclusion that poetry can be translated,even though each translation

has its. limitations. Hong Bin studied the translation of demotic cultural elements in

Yuanqu poems from the perspective of reception aesthetics. She finds that Gu’s

translated work achieves the aesthetic pleasure of “common human function” from

“expective horizon” and “aesthetic distance,, (Hong Bin 2010: 64). Zhu Pan (2012:

6
Chapter Two Literature Review

169) discussed the use of “Liejin” and its “Liubai” translation strategy in Yuanqu

poems by comparing Spring—To the Tune of Sky-clear Sand translated by Zhou

Fangzhu and Xu Yuanchong,and pointed out that “Liubai” preserves the beauty of the

original text and helps to spread and disseminate traditional Chinese culture.

From what is mentioned above,it can be seen that,even though domestic

research on the translation of Yuanqu poems starts relatively late,it is attracting more

and more attention,especially after China entered WTO. This will be helpful for

foreign scholars to leam about Yuanqu poems and traditional Chinese culture and

enhance the cultural communication between China and the international world.

2.2.2 International Studies

Yuanqu poems were introduced to other countries shortly after they gained

reputation in China. The study of Yuanqu poems is as popular in other countries as it

is in China. Many international scholars work hard on the study of Yuanqu poems.

In the 19th century, most of international studies were commentaries on works

such as literature history, or drama history. The second half of the 20th century

witnessed systematic studies of Yuanqu poems. Wayne Schlepp published his book

San-chu: Its Technique and Imagery in 1970. He wrote in the preface of his book that

“It was during my years in the School of Oriental and African Studies, just after I

became aware that knowing words and syntax was not sufficient to the task of

translating Chinese poetry, that I became interested in the ways in which the Chinese

language creates poetic effects. It was suggested by the late Dr. Waley that Yuan

Dynasty popular verse would serve as good material for a study of poetic effects in

Chinese, so I began reading Sanqu.” (Schlepp, 1970; 1) Schlepp systematically

describes the development of Yuanqu poems and how the poets composed Yuanqu

poems in terms of rhyme,parallelism and miscellaneous repetition,figures of speech

and rhetorical devices. As it both serves as an introduction and as a standard for

foreign readers to appreciate Yuanqu poems, it is generally considered as a pioneering

work introducing Yuanqu poems to the western world. Jerome Seaton published his

translations of Yuanqu poems,all of which were written by 20 poets, such as Guan

7
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

Hanqing,Qiao Ji,Ma Zhiyuan and Zhang Yanghao and anonymous authors in a drunk

state, and entitled his translated work The Wine of Endless Life in Michigan in 1978.

Writer’s drunkenness is either a_ state of mind or a metaphor for spiritual

enlightenment. The translator explained the reason why he translated these Yuanqu

poems written in a drunk state. Intellects were assigned a social status only higher

than that of the beggar. On many occasions,they got drunk to avoid the cruel reality.

The translator hopes to mirror the social background at that time under which these

Yuanqu poems were composed. In the translations, the translator tried to reflect the

“modernity” of the new literature style in general, while retaining the differences

among individual styles. Seaton translated in a literal way for the most part, and used

paraphrase to translate allusive part to avoid footnote. Another master in the study of

Yuanqu poems is James Crump. He spent four years writing a book entitled Songs

from Xanadu as a rigorous attempt to make some sense out of the prosodic and

technical questions which these songs raise about themselves. Song Poems from

Xanadu was a sequel to the previous work, written for those who almost know

nothing about the subject matter of Yuanqu poems (Crump,1993; 10). In this work,he

rendered many representative works by Yuan dynasty writers with different subject

matters, such as songs of mockery, love and parody,friendship,contemplation,and

wisdom. All these compositions either belong to the short lyric (Xiaoling) or the long

song-set (Taochu). Moreover, he also made comments after each translation,focusing

either on his translation strategies or his treatment of the special cultural phenomenon

in the source texts.

James Liu,a famous Chinese scholar in America,also did a lot in the study of

Yuanqu poems. He translated a great many popular Yuanqu poems,made systematic

observation and research of the Chinese language,and explored the relationship

between the Chinese language and Chinese poetry as well as the similarities and

differences between English poetry and Chinese poetry. As to the translation of

Yuanqu poems, he once said that,”Since they are primarily meant to illustrate various

aspects of poetic language,they have to be as close to the original as possible,though

I have tried to make them readable as welL,,(Liu,1962; 8) In his translation process,

s
Ch印ter Two Literature Review

he tried his best to follow the features of the original, which helps foreign readers to

understand traditional Chinese literature better.

Many other international scholars are also committed to studying Yuanqu poems.

Due to the limit of space, it is a pity that the author cannot list all of them and what

they have done. As time goes on,it is safely to say tiiat the study of Yuanqu poems

abroad will be more popular.

2.3 Significance of the Thesis

It can be seen that previous researchers home and abroad have done a lot on the

translation and study of Yuanqu poems and have made many accomplishments.

Professor Zhou Fangzhu’s An English Translation of200 Yuanqu poems is one of the

largest English translations of Yuanqu poems. However,it has not attracted so much

attention in previous studies. This study analyzes Professor Zhou Fangzhu’s An

English Translation of 200 Yuanqu poems from the perspective of Eco-translatology

for the first time, and proposes a new perspective in studying the translation of

Yuanqu poems. The theoretical framework for this study, Eco-translatology, will be

discussed in detail in the following chapter,

9
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework

This chapter introduces the theoretical framework for this sudy,

Eco-translatology,including its formation and development, philosophical basis,

translation process and standard, translation principle and translation method. In the

end, the author discusses the applicability of Eco-translatology in the translation of

Yuanqu poems.

3.1 Formation and Development of Eco-Translatology

The advent of a new theory is the result of social development. The 1960s

witnessed human society’s transition from industrial civilization to ecological

civilization. In 1962,US marine biologist Rachel Carson published his book Silent

Spring, in which he realized that human being is on the turning point of existence due

to its damage to the nature (Carson, 1962). In 1972,the United Nations issued the

world-famous Declaration on the Human Environment,attracting world-wide

.attention to the protection of natural environment. In 1987,the World Commission on

Environment and Development defined “sustainable development” as “meeting the

needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet

their needs”. China also began to pay attention to the ecological environment. The

Chinese government put the principle of sustainable development and the scientific

outlook on development into effect,both of which emphasize that economic growth

cannot be achieved at the expense of eco-environment. Promoted by the official

movement,people’s ecological awareness has been raised and natural resources

preservation is becoming a part of daily life. Under such circumstances, the

incorporation of ecology into translational study conforms to the trend of the era and

offers translational study a brand new perspective.

The advent of Eco-translatology is also an inevitable result of the transition of

modem philosophical thoughts. In 1967,French philosopher Jacques Derrida pointed

out that the “center” can be either in the structure or out of it,and “汪 center does not

necessarily mean the center”. (Derrida, 1967) In 1973,famous Norwegian ecological

philosopher Ame Naess (1973) put forward “Deep Ecology” theory,introducing

10
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework

ecology into philosophical and ethical fields. U.S ecological philosopher David

Griffin put forward the notion of “Eco-existence”, which developed “Deep ecology”,

indicating the start of ecological ontology. In a word,modem philosophy came across

the turn from epistemology to ontology, and from human to ecology. This

philosophical turn opened the gate to viewing translation study from translational

ecology. (Hu Gengshen, 2008: 12)

Many ancient Chinese philosophers also put forward ecological notions,such as

“Man is an integral part of nature (天人合—”The universe is an organic whole (天

地万物合而为一体)”,and “Natuxe-the principle (道法自然)”.These ancient

wisdoms serve as crucial basis of Eco-translatology.

By the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, more and

more people are concerned about nature and eco-environment. Ecology develops

beyond natural science and is combined with many other disciplines like philosophy,

aesthetics,linguistics, economics, etc. All these inter-disciplinary researches bring

possibility and hope to combining ecology with translation study.

Eco-Translatology is first put forward by Professor Hu Gengshen. In 2001,

Professor Hu published his paper “An Initial Exploration into an Approach to

Translation as Adaptation and Selection”. From the perspective of adaptation and

selection,this paper redefined translation and explained the relationship between

translator’s adaptation and selection. In 2003, Professor Hu published “Translation as

Adaptation and Selection” in the international journal ”Perspectives’\ He defined this

systematic theoretical study as “an ecological approach to translation”. One year later,

he published “Theoretical Props of the Approach to Translation as Adaptation and

Selection” in which he expounded theoretical props of a theory of Translation as

Adaptation and Selection in the light of Darwinian idea of natural selection (Hu

Gengshen,2004: 4). In the same year,Professor Hu published “An Empirical Study on

Evaluating the ‘Approach to Translation as Adaptation and Selection,Through

Questionnaire Surveys”‘^ in which he proved that approach to translation as adaptation

and selection is helpful to better translations. In 2008, Professor Hu published

Translation as Adaptation and Selection which marked the establishment of

11
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
Eco-Translatology.

The author has searched the CNKI (China national knowledge infrastructure)

and found that “Translation as Adaptation and Selection” has been used to guide

hundreds of Master’s theses and dissertations since 2005. This enriches the content of

“Translation as Adaptation and Selection” and promotes its development.

In 2008,the national social science project “Eco-Translatology: the Ecological

Perspective of Translation Study” put forward by Tsinghua University scholars was

approved. This project studies translation ecosystem from ecology with the aim to

establish a new translation pattern. This project opened a new perspective for China

and the rest of the world to view translation.

“Chinese Translators Journal” opened Eco-transaltology column in 2009, and

“Foreign Languages Research” opened the new perspective of translation studies

column. These special columns not only provide scholars with academic stages to

develop Eco-Translatology but also offer guidance for subsequent researchers.

In recent years, many famous translation scholars from America, Britain and

Denmark are invited to China to discuss the development of Eco-Translatology and

relevant international communication. Based on the international commimication,

International Association of Eco-Translatology Research was established in Macao

Institute of Technology. In 2010,this association held the first “International

Symposium on Eco-Translatology” to explore the development of Eco-Translatology.

Due to the efforts of Eco-Translatology researchers,Eco-Translatology has

achieved great success and has become an important and influential translation theory.

3.2 Philosophical Basis

The philosophical basis of Eco-translatology is Darwinian “Adaptation/

Selection”. Roseanna Warren proposed that translation is a kind of cognition and

survival mode. “When transplanted from one language to another, literary works must

adapt as a man or a nation,and only if they adapt to the new environment and make

changes could they survive” (Warren, 1989: 6). Bassnett and Lefevere put forward

“Cultural Turn”,and described context as “cultural environment” and made an

12
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework

analogy between the place where trees live and the linguist’s exploration in translation

studies (Bassnett & Lefevere, 1994: 4). Cultural expert Henry points out in his

monograph ”Ho’w Things Got Better: Speech,Writing, Printing’ and Cultural

Change” that “Cultural turn also follows Darwinism.” He argues that culture is

constantly changing and improving,and all culture changes through changing and

improving current culture (Perkinson, 1995: xii). Famous linguist Verschuren points

out in his book “Pragmatics as a Theory of Linguistic Adaptation^” that linguistic

adaptation is that the language adapts to the environment,or the environment adapts

to the language, or they adapt to each other. Proper and successful communication is

both a process of adaptation and the result of adaptation (Verschueren,1987).

“Adaptation” and “Selection” is “the basic mechanism that regulates human behavior”

(Lopreato & Crippen., 1999: 85). Due to this reason, Darwin’s “Adaptation/Selection”

is not only studied and applied in natural science, but also in social science. In China,

even though there are not so many translation studies and comments from ecological

perspective, some scholars already started to discuss the quality of translation,the

theory of translation, and the problems in the development of translation from

ecological perspective (Zhang Mingquan, 2005; Ji Xianlin, 2005). These studies not

only provide translation with a new perspective, but also lay foundation for further

studies.

The development of translation is closely related to the development of human

society. Translation emerges and develops due to the co-existence of different

languages and the need to communicate among different languages. Translation is the

transformation of language. Language is a part of human culture, and culture is

cultivated and developed through human communication. Man is part of biosphere.

Thus Professor Hu’s point of view on the relation between translation activities and

biosphere is illustrated as in Figure 1.


I

Translation-^ ? Language <—? Culture <—? Human <~? Biosphere

t

Figure 1 The Interrelation between Translation Activities and Biosphere

13
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
(Hu Gengshen,2004,p.2)

Figure 1 shows that translation activities,as a kind of human activity, are either

directly or indirectly related to biosphere. This interrelation makes it possible to apply

basic rules in biosphere to translation. Many other scholars also mentioned the

relationship between human activity and biosphere. Famous philosopher and

semiologist Charles S. Peirce once said the cognitive process of human thought is

naturalized; human thought itself shares the same features with all the other activities

in nature (Gorle 1994: 48-49). Domestic philosophical theorist Qian Jin (2001: 1206)

believed that each human being is connected with nature with indefinite ways.

Famous translation theorist George Steiner (1975: 235) proposed that translation

theories can be categorized into universalist and relativist theories. Broader horizon

and more accomplishment will be achieved if human activity is studied firom both

social system and ecosystem. It can be seen that the interrelation between translation

activities and biosphere discussed above and the description about interaction between

natural ecosystem and social system serve as a support to illustrate translation

activities with Eco-translatology. (Hu Gengshen,2004)

3.3 Translation Process and Standard

Hu Gengshen (2004) points out that the translation process is an alternate cycle

of translator’s adaptation and selection. It can be divided into two stages: translator’s

adaptation to the eco-environment or the selection of a translator by the

eco-environment and the translator’s selection of a translated text as a member of the

eco-environment. Hu Gengshen (2008: 92) states that translational eco-environment

refers to the situation and condition presented by the source language,source text,and

target language. It includes the language, the culture,the communication system,and

the society. On the one hand,it limits and restricts translator’s best adaptation to itself;

on the other hand,it is the basis of translator’s adaptive selection of the translated text.

At the first stage, the translator is not a member of the eco-environment of

translation. The translational eco-environment with the knowledge of the source text

as the typical element selects the translator. Those unqualified translators will not be

14
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework

selected by the eco-enviromnent of translation.

At the second stage,the translator has adapted to the eco-environment of

translation and has become a typical element of it. The translator, on behalf of the

eco-environment, selects the translated text. In a word, the translation process can be

summarized as the translator’s adaptation to the eco-environment of translation and

his or her selection of translated text as a typical element of it.

According to Hu Gengshen (2008; 4),founder of Eco-translatology,translation

standard is whether the translation reaches the highest “degree of holistic adaptation

and selection” which means multi-dimensional adaptation to the translational

eco-environment and adaptive transformation from linguistic,cultural and

communicative dimensions.

3.4 Translation Principle and Translation Method

Translation principle provides translation practice with rules and standards which

guide translation operation. Hu Gengshen (2008: 1) defines translation as selective

adaptation to the eco-environment of translation and adaptive selection of translated

text. However,since eco-environment consists of too many factors for translators to

adapt themselves to all of them,translators thus only need to adapt to those most

significant factors, which is defined as multi-dimensional adaptation. After

multi-dimensional adaptation,translators need to do selection work which is called

adaptive selection. Therefore the translation principle of Eco-translatology consists of

two parts: multidimensional adaptation and adaptive selection.

Translation method means to put translation principles into practice.

Eco-translatology summarizes translation methods as “three dimensional

transformations” which are adaptive transformation from linguistic dimension,

adaptive transformation from cultural dimension,and adaptive transformation from

communicative dimension (Hu Gengshen 2004). Language, culture and

communication are most important factors in translation theories. Many translation

theorists believe that translation should be studied from linguistic aspect,culture

aspect or communication aspect. They are also the focus that translators are concerned

15
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

about when doing translation. However,translation is often studied only from one

aspect rather than from a macroscopic way. Eco-translatology integrates them and

develops into a more comprehensive translation theory. As to the relationship of the

three dimensions,it can be concluded that language is used to carry culture and

achieve the goal of communication. They are interrelated to each other and together

constitute adaptive transformation.

3.5 Applicability of Eco-translatology in the translation of

Yuanqu Poems

In theory,the “ecology” mentioned above includes all kinds of relationship

among people and between human and nature. It contains factors in other fields and

thus can be used to guide the activity in other fields in a macroscopic way. When

ecology is connected to translation activity,Eco-translatology is different from other

translation theories like Skopos theory and communicative translation, which focus on

one aspect in translation while neglect others. It gets almost all the elements in

translation involved and analyzes the whole translation process in a macroscopic way.

This enables target readers to view the translated versions from a much more

comprehensive perspective and learn about Yuanqu poems much more objectively.

Yuanqu poems are a kind of literature form which appeared and developed in the

Yuan Dynasty,the first dynasty established by a minority in Chinese history. The Yuan

Dynasty plays an important role in the expansion of territory and establishment of a

multi-race country. However, people are divided into several classes and intellects are

regarded as the bottom of society with a status only higher than the beggar. Under

such circumstances, intellects and talents chose to avoid the cruel reality,looked on

the conflict in government, or showed their pity to the people. The writing style of

Yuanqu poems is not as rigid as that of the Tang poetry and the Song lyrics. It is much

more flexible in rhyme and the number of words. The theme of Yuanqu poems covers

a wide range of content: some satirize the present with the past, some meditate on the

past some bemoan the state of the universe and pity the fate of mankind, and some

sing of love. What is more,different writers have totally different artistic features, all

16
Chg^)ter Three Theoretical Framework

of which reached higji artistic accompfishment. All these factors influence the

translator’s choice in the translation process. Besides, there is no doubt that the target

reader, the mainstream ideology of the translator’s time, and the translator’s

motivation and qualification also have a deHcate effect on the translation. AcconUng

to Eco-translatology, all the factors mentioned above are taken as the translation

eco-enviromnent that influences the translation. If the translator adapts himself or

herself to the traoslational eco-enviromnent, he or she will continue to do adaptive

transformation based on adaption. In view of the translation of Yuanqu poems, the

author divides the translational eco-enviromnent into the internal traoslational

eco-enviromnent and external translational eco-enviromnent Both multi-dimensional

adaptation to the translational eco-enviromnent and adaptive transformation from

three dimensions ensure a qualified translation work. Detailed analysis of the

translations will be presented in the following chapter.

17
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and

Transformation in the Translation of Yuanqu Poems

Eco-translatology based on the theory of translation as adaptation and selection

prioritizes the degree of holistic adaptation and selection which determines whether

the translation work will be a success or a failure. Like creatures living and competing

in nature,a translation work also survives through the selection of “nature”, which is

composed of all the dements in the translational eco-environment. Unless the

translator adapts himself to the translational eco-environment and makes proper

selections, his or her translation work will not be guaranteed to survive fierce natural

competition,

Eco-translatology divides translation process into two steps: translator’s

multi-dimensional adaptation and adaptive transformation. Translator’s

multi-dimensional adaptation plays a primary role in translation,because if the

translational eco-environment is not well adapted to, his or her adaptive

transformation will never be satisfactory. The multi-dimensional adaptation refers to

the translator’s internal desire and ability to adapt himself or herself to the influential

factors in the translation process, including source text,background information

related to translation,the target reader, the pursuit of translation work’s quality,

translator’s inner demand,etc (Hu Gengshen,2004: 121). These factors constitute the

translational eco-environment. So the eco-enviromnent to which the translator adapts

consists of two parts: the internal part with the translator as the center,mainly his or

her “need” and “competence”, and the external part with various factors as the centers,

like social environment, source text, mainstream ideology of translator’s time,

reader’s expectation,and other important factors. It is necessary to talk about the

translational eco-environment of translation of Yuanqu poems before describing

translator’s multi-dimensional adaptation process.

The translational eco-environment and Professor’s Zhou multi-dimensional

adaptation and adaptive transformation will be discussed in detail in this chapter.

18
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems

4.1 Translational Eco-environment of Translation of Yuanqu

Poems

Important and constantly changing as the translational eco-environment is,it is

unlikely to put too much emphasis on elaborating all parts of it in a study. Due to the

fact that different text types share different focal points,which require translators to

be able to select those relevant and important parts to which they should pay special

attention and leave those irrelevant and unimportant parts alone, translators thus need

to adapt themselves to the requirements of the translational eco-environment. Taking

the novel translation as an example, the translator must understand what happens to

whom in what a situation. Then the background information about the characters like

their status and their relationship,etc, need to be discussed in detail as the

translational eco-environment. The translation of public signs is totally different.

Whether the translation of public signs is successful depends on whether the style,

function and same communicative effect of the source text are conveyed. So style,

function and communicative effect are the key factors in the translational

eco-environment of public signs. The translation of Yuanqu poems is much more

complex and difficult compared with the translation of a novel and public signs

because its translational eco-environment is composed of a lot more elements,such as

translator’s need and competence, social environment, target text reader, the

mainstream ideology of the translator’s time, and source text, all of which must be

well adapted to before the translator starts his work.

Yuanqu poems,as great treasure in Chinese literature,bear unique characteristics

in its content and artistic accomplishment. Many of them have been translated into

English and other foreign languages by different translators. Professor Zhou’s An

English Translation of 200 Yuanqu poems is an outstanding version. This version is

the fruit of the translator’s multi-dimensional adaptation to the translational

eco-environment ofYuanqu poems and adaptive transformation.

According to Eco-translatology, the translational eco-environment is divided into

two parts: the internal translational eco-environment and the external translational

19
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
eco-environment. The internal translational eco-environment comprises all the

elements relevant to the translator, and the external translational eco-environment

consists of all the essential factors except those relevant to the translator. As to the

translational eco-environment of Yuanqu poems; after a thorough analysis of

Professor Zhou’s An English Translation of 200 Yuanqu Poems, the author finds that

the translator’s need and competence in the internal translational eco-environment,

and the source text, target text reader and mainstream ideology of the translator’s time

in the external translational eco-environment are taken as the key elements to adapt to.

Professor Zhou’s adaptation to the translational eco-environment of Yuanqu poems

will be discussed in the following section.

4.2 Adaptation to the Internal Translational

Eco-environment

The internal translational eco-environment consists of translator’s “need” and

“competence”. According to Eco-translatology, need can be discussed from

translator’s interest in the source text and his or her motivation to translate, both of

which drive the translator to devote to the translation. “Competence” means

translator’s ability to produce trmislation work with high degree of holistic adaptation

and selection. This ability consists of both the translator’s bilingual and bicultural

competence and his knowledge of the source text.

4.2.1 Adaptation to Translator’s Need

In psychology, need is divided into the “low” need and the “high” need. The low

need refers to the need to live,the need to eat,drink and everything related to

physiology, while the “high” need refers to the need on mental level,such as the

pursuit of ideal, the interest in a certain vocation, the desire of accomplishment, the

devotion to a career, etc,(Hu Gengshen,2004: 76). Of these needs in daily life,it is

considered that translation activity is connected to mental “need”. Many translators

translate out of their love of the source text, others translate to establish their

reputation. However, some translator’s need is so “low” that they translate to make

quick material profit. These translators are likely to fail because they do not adapt

20
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems

themselves to appropriate translation need according to Eco-translatology.

As cultural communication becomes more and more frequent,more and more

traditional Chinese literature is translated into English and introduced to international

society. The translation of Yuanqu poems is becoming more and more popular and is

attracting more and more translators’ attention. Professor Zhou once went to America

to teach the Chinese language and culture. He found that Yuanqu poems,even though

are an essential part of Chinese literature,are hardly known to the majority of foreign

students. He turned to the translation and study of Yuanqu poems,and shouldered the

responsibility to spread Yuanqu poems abroad. From then on, he is committed to

translating Yuanqu poems.

4.2.1.1 Professor Zhou’s Interest in Yuanqu Poems

Interest is said to be the best teacher, and much of people’s behavior is guided by

their interest. Yuanqu poems,as an outstanding literature form thriving in the Yuan

Dynasty, distinguish themselves not only by their unique literature features but also by

that specific period of time. It would be impossible for a translator to translate Yuanqu

poems well if he or she does not have interest in it because he or she cannot delve into

the social circumstances in which they were composed. Translator’s interest is an

essential part of the internal translational eco-environment which should be adapted

to.

In the field of the translation of Yuanqu poems,Professor Zhou Fangzhu is an

indisputable master translator. He works hard on the translation of Yuanqu poems and

has translated hundreds of Yuanqu poems,many of which gain wide-spread popularity

among readers. How could he translate so many Yuanqu poems without strong interest

in them? What is more,he is so interested in the translation of Yuanqu poems that he

has published many papers to exchange his ideas with other translators and scholars

interested in this area in order to improve the quality of the translation of Yuanqu

poems and disseminate Yuanqu poems all over the world. It is tough work. But who

could do such a boring and tough job without interest? He said many times in his

classes that Yuanqu poems are the treasure of Chinese literature, which deserve our

21
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

effort to research and spread it around the world. His effort on the translation study of

Yuanqu poems extends his knowledge of traditional Chinese literature, and facilitates

intercultural communication between East and West.

It can be safely said that it is the strong interest that leads Professor Zhou to the

road of the translation of Yuanqu poems. Without interest in Yuanqu poems,it is

almost impossible to carefully choose original texts,and make so much effort on such

boring work with rigorous research spirit.

4.2.1.2 Professor Zhou’s Motivation to Translate

Each social activity bears its purpose, and translation activity is no exception.

Different people’s purposes in the translation process differ a lot. After China

implemented the reform and opening up policy, there is a trend that more and more

traditional Chinese literary works are introduced to the outside world. The export of

Yuanqu poems is also growing dramatically, which provides the translators of Yuanqu

poems with a great stage to show their talents. On the one hand,as a Chinese

translator and scholar,Professor Zhou hopes to do something to promote the cultural

communication between China and the western world. After he taught the Chinese

language and culture in America, he chose to introduce Yuanqu poems to the western

world through his efforts.

On the other hand, in the export of Yuanqu poems,a lot of translation work was

done by foreign translators. This fact makes domestic translators and scholars feel that

they do not fulfill their duty to spread Yuanqu poems. Besides,as Chinese culture is

so deep and different from western culture, it is quite difficult for foreign translators

and scholars to understand the original text. Their translations sometimes lose the

original form and features of Yuanqu poems. Moreover,some scholars even believe

that poems are unable to be translated.. Professor Zhou believes that Yuanqu poems

are translatable (Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 2).This belief serves as the second motivation

for his career in translating Yuanqu poems.

4.2.2 Adaptation to Translator’s Competence

In view of adaptation to the internal translational eco-enviroiunent, translators

22
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems
often act in two aspects to achieve the highest degree of holistic adaptation and

selection. First of all,they are usually inclined to translate the source text that he or

she is skilled at. Second, they will try to avoid source text that they are unfamiliar

with. Wang Zuoliang (1989: 27) points out that a translator’s personal condition

determines what kinds of texts suit him or her to translate,while other texts do not.

Translators should choose those texts that are the same as or similar to his or her kinds,

otherwise his or her translation is doomed to be a failure. Qiao Cengrui (1993: 65)

also mentions that translators unfamiliar with poems should not try poem translating,

translators who do not specialize in culture should not try literary translation, and

translators who know little or nothing about logical deduction and analysis should

avoid political translation. In a word,translators should not try texts that he or she is

not good at, otherwise the consequence will be disappointing.

Translator’s competence is so important as to determine the quality of the

translation work. Different types of translation require translators to have different

competence. In addition to the interlingual and intercultural competence, translator’s

knowledge of Yuanqu poems is a must,when it comes to the translation of Yuanqu

poems.

4.2.2.1 Professor Zhou’s Inter-lingual and Intercultural Competence

Translation is an interlingual activity. Bilingual ability is basic for translator’s

qualification. Only when the translator masters the source language can he or she

avoid misunderstanding of the source text,and only when the translator could express

the source text in English can the translation be delivered to target reader without

misunderstanding. Yuanqu poems have their unique writing form,and there are great

differences between Chinese and English. It may be easy to understand Yuanqu poems,

but to render it into English with the same style is a totally different thing.

Language never goes alone in communication. It is the carrier of culture. As a

kind of literature form,Yuanqu poems fully convey Chinese thinking pattern,living

habits,traditions and customs as well as obvious social characteristics in the Yuan

Dynasty, which differ a lot from those in English. The translator should know clearly

23
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

about the cultural differences before translation so that he or she can tackle cultural

conflicts and bridge cultural gap during the translation process.

Through Professor Zhou’s working experience and his academic fruits, it can be

seen that he sufficiently adapts himself to the internal translational eco-environment in

interlingual and intercultural respect. He graduated from Anhui University,majoring

in English. He is now one of the postgraduate supervisors of Anhui University, and

takes the leading position in translation in Anhui University. He focuses on translation

study for tens of years and has translated a large amount of literary works,which

brings him rich translation experience. Moreover, he has been teaching translation

theory and practice for many years, and during this period of time,he achieves

outstanding accomplishment in translation theory studies and publishes several books

on translation study,some of which are the textbooks used by college students. His

accomplishment also brought him the opportunity to go to America to teach the

Chinese language and culture. From Professor Zhou,s experience,it can be seen that

he is skillful at translation and already accumulates enough experience to handle

interlingual and intercultural communication and is competent to handle cultural

differences in the translation of Yuanqu poems. So Professor Zhou is competent to

translate Yuanqu poems for his sufficient experience and cultural accumulation.

In order to adapt to the translational eco-environment, the translator should first

have a good command of inter-lingual and intercultural competence. However, it is far

from enough. It is still hard for the translator to produce a perfect version for target

readers if he lacks knowledge of Yuanqu poems.

4.2.2.2 Professor Zhou’s Knowledge of Yuanqu Poems

The knowledge of Yuanqu poems,including the writing background,the

author’s experience,the feature of the Yuanqu poems, and the writing style,the name

of tunes, etc, are to be adapted to after the translator acquires inter-lingual and

intercultural competence. In order to folly comprehend Yuanqu poems,the translator

should acquire as much knowledge about Yuanqu poems as possible. Yuanqu poems

are a combination of various complex elements,which are all important. Different

24
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation of Yuanqu Poems

names of tunes have different requirements for the number of words and rhyme,and

different poets live in different time and have different writing styles. The translator

should try his best to relive to the original conditions in which the Yuanqu poems

were composed. Only in this way could the translator fully understand Yuanqu poems.

Professor Zhou has been regarded as one of the several masters in the study of

the translation of Yuanqu poems not only because he has translated hundreds of

Yuanqu poems,but also because he has published some papers with novel and

original ideas on important journals such as Chinese Translators Journal, Shandong

Foreign Languages Journal, and Foreign languages and Their Teaching,etc. He has

been committed to the study of Yuanqu poems for many years, and has been familiar

with the social background of the Yuan Dynasty, the style,the rhyme, characteristics,

status and influence of Yuanqu poems. He focuses on the characteristics of Yuanqu

poems and their translation strategies and establishes his fame in this field. Students

and readers learn a lot from his translations and get much inspiration from his study

on the translation of Yuanqu poems. In a word, Professor Zhou knows enough

knowledge about Yuanqu poems, which helps a lot in the translation of Yuanqu

poems.

4.3 Professor Zhou’s Adaptation to the External

Translational Eco-environment

The external translational eco-environment includes all the outer elements

influencing the translation process, such as the source text,society,readers, original

language and target language, publishing house,etc. It is a combination of all these

outer elements. When it comes to the external translational eco-environment of

Yuanqu poems,the source text, and the social environment consisting of target text

reader and mainstream ideology of the translator’s time are taken as the focus.

4.3.1 Source Text

As the material of translation, the source text provides the translator with the

most information needed to do his or her work. Its importance is obvious.

Famous scholar Sui Shusen spent seventeen years on the collection and edition of

25
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatolo^

all the existing Yuanqu poems into an anthology entitled Quan Yuan Sanqu. The 200

Yuanqu poems translated by Professor Zhou are carefully chosen from 3853 Yuanqu

poems in Quan Yuan Sanqu by 68 writers,covering 43 different names of times. Even

though there are only 200 translations of Yuanqu poems,it has been the second largest

English translation of Yuanqu poems. Seen from the theme, the content is really

extensive: some use the past to satirize the present,some meditate on the past,some

bewail the times and pity the people,some sing of love, and the theme that the official

circle is not a safe place while the country is like paradise is manifested perfectly.

Viewed from artistic style,all the 200 Yuanqu poems are like a hundred flowers in

bloom: Lu Zhi’s style is magnificent and smooth,Guan Hanqing’s is glittering and

translucent, Bai Pu,s is fresh and tender,Ma Zhiyuan,s is free and bold,Zhang

Yanghao’s is broad and elegant,Zhao Shanqing’s is gloomy and bleak,Zhou Deqing’s

is clear and succinct,Tang Shi’s is aloof and wild,etc. Even though these writers have

different styles, both their depth of thought and artistic state reach excellent level.

Professor Zhou knows well about the characteristics of the 200 Yuanqu poems

chosen from Quan Yuan Sanqu, For example, his study of the Autumn Thought—To

the Tune of Sky-clear Sand discussed the translation of literary fuzziness and proposed

that the literary gap should be retained to inspire target readers to appreciate the target

text in reading, thinking and imagination (Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 274). He knows well

about the writers’ style too. His thorough understanding of the 200 Yuanqu poems

provides a firm foundation for him,which decides his adaptation to the external

translational eco-environment.

4.3.2 Social Environment

Social environment is the sum of social and mental conditions,where social

activity happens and is influenced in turn. As a kind of social activity,translation

activity has been constantly under its influence. When it comes to the translation of

Yuanqu poems,target text reader and mainstream ideology of the translator’s time are

the most essential elements which affect the translator’s adaptation.

4.3.2.1 Target Text Reader

26
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems

Target text reader plays an influential role in the external translational

eco-environment, and whether the translator satisfys their needs or not determines

whether his or her translation is a success or a failure.

The translation of Yuanqu poems mainly serves the foreign readers who hope to

learn about traditional Chinese culture. Since the implementation of the reform and

opening up policy,China has gradually become a part of the international society. As

intercultural communication between China and the outside world develops rapidly,

more and more foreign readers hope to learn about traditional Chinese culture. As an

essential part of traditional Chinese culture,Yuanqu poems,which bear a high status

in Chinese literary history,were gradually known among foreign readers. Yuanqu

poems are combinations of sound,form,and meaning, and they reflect Chinese

thinking pattern and world view. Chinese readers are able to enjoy the beauty of

Yuanqu poems and raise Chinese language competence and cultural cultivation.

However, the foreign reader not only hopes to enjoy the aesthetic value but also hopes

to learn about the difference between the Chinese thinking pattern and world view and

their own, which requires the translator to take foreign readers’ different demands into

account,considering their reading ability,their comprehension ability and their

appreciation ability. Besides,foreign readers may have different ideas on some images,

which may cause misunderstanding, or even cultural conflict. Hence, foreign readers

demand that the translation of Yuanqu poems should keep the aesthetic value of the

original text, while coping with the cultural difference and avoiding cultural

misunderstanding.

Therefore, the key to adapting to the target text reader is to identify their

demands and satisfy them by adaptive transformation in the three dimensions of

language, culture and communication,which will be discussed latter on in this

chapter.

4.3.2.2 Mainstream Ideology of Professor Zhou’s Time

Translation is not merely a simple transformation, between different languages. It

is also greatly influenced by a series of social and cultural factors,of which the

27
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
mainstream ideology is the most significant. Mainstream ideology refers to a

combination of social view,political view and people’s world view during a period of

time,which covers all the political,cultural and mental factors. It is widely believed

in translation criticism that mainstream ideology, as an essential part of the external

translational eco-environment, exerts a great influence on the translator. The translator

can adapt to the mainstream ideology on condition that he thoroughly understands and

follows the mainstream ideology of his or her time.

After the implementation of the reform and opening up policy,China opened its

door to the outside world, and made great progress in its economic development. As

China’s overall national strength and international status rise, the international

community is in great need of traditional Chinese culture, and Chinese translators also

realize that it is their duty to introduce more Chinese classics to the outside world;

publishing companies sense the chance to make profit, and the government is also

willing to disseminate Chinese culture and enhance China’s influence in the world.

Driven by all these factors,the end of the 20th century witnessed the fourth translation

boom, in which Chinese-English translation plays a large part. Under this condition,a

great many Chinese classics are translated and introduced to other countries and many

become really popular among foreign readers.

An English Translation of 200 Yuanqu Poems was published in 2009,and it is

greatly influenced by the mainstream ideology of the end of the 20th century and that

of the 2000s. First,the translator senses the mainstream ideology of his time that

Chinese-English translation is a trend and then chooses to translate Yuanqu poems,

which occupy an important position in Chinese literary history,but have not attracted

enough attention. Second, in An English Translation of 200 Yuanqu Poems, the

translator focuses on the realization of the artistic effect and the aesthetic value of the

original texts,thus conforming to the mainstream ideology of his time. In a word,

Professor Zhou adapts himself to the mainstream ideology of his time, and his

translated work is the result of his adaptation.

4.4 Adaptive Transformation from Three Dimensions

28
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems

Eco-translatology divides translation process into two steps: multi-dimensional

adaptation and adaptive transformation. The second step means translators who have

already adapted themselves to the translational eco-environment select target texts

through “transformation from three dimensions”: adaptive transformation from

linguistic, cultural and communicative dimensions under “multi-dimensional

adaptation and adaptive transformation”. (Hu Gengshen. 2008: 2)

4.4.1 Adaptive Transformation from the Linguistic Dimension

Adaptive transformation from linguistic dimension refers to the translator’s

adaptive transformation of language form in the translation process. This adaptive

transformation is carried out on different aspects and levels (Hu Gengshen 2008: 2).

In the translation of Yuanqu poems,the transformation from the linguistic dimension

is reflected at the form level and sound level: Fidelity to the form of the original text

and realization of the beauty of rhyme.

4.4.1.1 Fidelity to the Form of the Original Text

Yuanqu poems have hundreds of different names of tunes to which Yuanqu

poems are composed. Each name of tunes has different requirements over the

composition of Yuanqu poems, which causes difference in the form of the Yuanqu

poems such as the number of words in each line,the rhetorical devices and the rhythm,

etc, which deserves the translator’s attention. Professor Zhou chose to be faithful to

the form of the original text.

Example 1:

凭阑人

江夜

张可久

江水澄澄江月明,

江上何人掐玉寧?

隔江和泪听,

满江长叹声。

Night on the River

29
A Study on An English Trcmslation of200 Ykanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

To the Tune of Person Leaning on the Railing

Zhang Kejiu

.
The river water is limpid and the luna bri^t.

Who’s on the river plucking the zither in a sad plight?

Across the river it’s heard in tears.

Over the river deep sighs come into ears.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 268-269)

The poet begins this poem with a night picture and then presents his doubt that

who is plucking the zither in the second line. In the third line,he describes the

manners of the listener, and in the last line, ends the poem with the sighs raised by the

music. In the translation. Professor Zhou tries his best to retain the original form. First,

the length of each line in the translation and the number of the words used are close to

the original one’s. Even though, each line has two to four more words than the original

text, most of these words are functional words which are indispensible in English

expressions. Second, Professor Zhou translates the question into a question^ which

keeps the form of the original text.

Example 2;

塞鸿秋

得阳即景

周德清

长江万里白如练,

淮山数点清如淀,

江帆几片疾如箭,

山泉千尺飞如电。

晚云都变露,

新月初学扇,

塞鸿一字来如线。

An Extempore on the Xunyang River?

To the Tune of Swans in Autumn

Zhou Deqing

30
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems

Stretching endlessly is the Yangtze River like a white ribbon,

Scattering in the distance are the mountains visibly green.

Shuttling along the river are a few sails like arrows in sight,

Pouring down is the fall of flying stream like a flash of light.

Turning into dew are the evening clouds on the wane,

Hanging in the sky is the new moon like a fan,

From the space beyond a flight of swans across the sky span.

(Zhou Fangzhu2009: 380-381)

(D The section of the Yangtze River in Jiujiang Prefecture, Jiangxi Province, is called the Xunyang River.

Zhou Deqing depicts the scenery in the Xunyang area in the poem from far to

near and shows the reader how beautiful Xunyang is. Using t匕喻,he lines “长江”,

“淮山”,“帆”,“泉”,and “大雁” up,compares them to “练”,“淀”,“箭’’,“电”

and“线,,respectively. Besides, he also describes the change of “云,,and “月 In the

translation,the translator adopts simile and compares the “Yangtze River”, “sails”,

“flying stream”, and “the new moon” to “white ribbon”,“arrows”,”a flash of light,,,

and “a fan”. What is more,the translator depicts “the mountain”,”the clouds” and

“the swan” in the translation. In a word,the translator keeps the form of the original

text to the largest extent.

In linguistic dimension, the form of the original text is the priority in the

translation of Yuanqu poems. Besides the original form,the beauty of sound is as

important, because Yuanqu poems were sung rather than read in the Yuan Dynasty.

The beauty of sound is displayed through rhyme,thus the beauty of rhyme should be

realized.

4.4.1.2 Realization of the Beauty of Rhyme

According to Eco-translatology, the translator’s choice of the target text is

influenced by the eco-environment in which the target reader is an important element.

Target reader hopes to hear Yuanqu poems sound pleasing and harmonious. Besides,

the beauty of rhyme plays such an important role that it should be realized in the

translation. Professor Zhou realized the beauty of rhyme in the translated text.

31
.
A Study on An English Thw/otfon of200 Yujcmqu Poem from the Perspective of Eco-1ranslatok)gy
Example 3:

大镰歜

关汉卿

雪纷纷,

掩重门,

不由人不断魂,

瘦损江梅韵。

那里是清江江上村?

香闺里冷落谁献问,

好一个憔粹的凭栏人。

Winter

To the Tune of\^tue

Guam Hanqing

Snow flakes fly thick and fast.

Shutting the gates she walks past.

Heart-broken her memories are evoked by the sight.

Thin and pallid plums are fading out.

At which village does my darling stay for the night?

It’s lonely in the snug harem no one can figure out,

Leaning on the railings, a lady’s really worn out.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 56-57)

This poem by Guan Hanqing reflects the desperate mood of a young lady in the

bower. The lady is pining for her husband who is living far away from her in a heavy

snow day, and even the heavy snow could not stop her from missing her husband. The

poet uses “纷”,“门”,“魂”,“韵”,“村”,“问” and “人” to rhyme throughout

the poem. This kind of rhyme exists only in Yuanqu poems. In the translation, the

translator creatively uses “fast”, “past”, “sight”, “out”, and “night” in the end of each

line to keep consistent with the rhyme style of the original text. This retains the beauty

of the rhyme of the original text and enables Ihe target reader to enjoy this beauty as

32
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transfoimation in Translation ofyiianqu Poons
the source text reader enjoys that of the original text So this translation is an

outstanding one.

If the rhyme of the translation is consistent with that of the original, it is surely

helpful to retain the beauty of the rhyme of the origmal. However, rhyme is also

restricted by the inner rhythm of the origmal. Mth the aim to keep the beauty of the

rhyme in the translation, the translator sometimes has to make changes in the rhythm

and as a result, the rhyme also changes (Xiao Haiyan 2002: 94).

Example 4:

寿阳曲

答卢疏斋

珠帘秀

山无数,

烟万缕。

憔悴煞玉堂人物。

倚蓬窗一身儿活受苦,

恨不得随大江东去。

Reply to Lu Shuzhai

To the Tune of Life-donating Sun

Zhu Lianxiu

Mountains and hills countless,

Curls of smoke endless,

The gracious literatus, he’s wan and sallow.

Leaning on the porthole I am severely tortured with sorrow.

The river flows east and I wish I could follow.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009:138-139)

This poem is a reply to another poem entitled Parting Zhu Lianxiu by Lu

Shuzhai. The original text begins with the description of scenery and ends with the

poet’s wish to follow back to Lu Shuzhai to comfort him, which reflects the poet’s

great attachment to Lu Shuzhai. In the original text,the first line, the tibird and the

fourth line rhyme; the second and the fifth line rhyme. The ori^al text sounds catchy.

33
A Study on An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
In the translated version,the first line and the second line rhyme; the last three lines

rhyme. Even though the rhyme is changed, the translated version also gives people a

strong sense of rhythm.

Rhyme is widely used in traditional Chinese literature such as the Tang poetry,

the Song lyrics and the Yuanqu poems. Yuanqu poems combine the characteristics of

popular music among ordinary people and the melody and music of minority groups,

make great progress in rhyme and become more flexible. By repeating the pattern of

rhyme or changing the pattern of rhyme,the translator realized the beauty of rhyme

and conveyed the beauty of music of Yuanqu poems to the target reader.

From what is mentioned above, it can be seen that the form of the original text

and the beauty of rhyme are essential parts of Yuanqu poems,which must be

maintained by the translator based on his adaptation to the translational

eco-environment.

4,4.2 Adaptive Transformation from the Cultural Dimension

Adaptive transformation from the cultural dimension means that translators must

concern about transmission and interpretation of bilingual cultural connotations in the

translation process. The adaptive transformation from the cultural dimension pays

special attention to the differences between source language culture and target

language culture to avoid misinterpretation of the source text from the perspective of

target language culture. When carrying out source language transformation,

translators must adapt to the cultural system to which this language belongs (Hu

Gengshen 2008: 3).

Adaptive transformation from the cultural dimension is mainly determined by the

mainstream ideology of the translator’s time,which is an important part of the

translational eco-environment that the translator should adapt himself or herself to.

Adaptive transformation from the cultural dimension concerns about the

culture-loaded items and allusions. Professor Zhou mainly employs addition and

annotation in his masterpiece,

4.4.2.1 Addition

34
Chapter Four Professor Zhott*s Ad^tadon md Transfonnation in Translation ofVuanqu Poems
Sun Zhili (1999: 62) points out that “facsimile of culture” should be the basic

rules af translation, and translation should be done under a much larger cultural

sphere. Eco-translatology stresses that each culture should be treated equally to ensure

world cultural diversity, and keep the balance of cultural exchange (Xu Jianzhong

2009: 286). The adaptive transformation from the cultural dimension aims to

eliminate cultural misunderstandings and facilitate cultural conununication. As

cultural-loaded words are frequently used, explanations sometimes are added to

compensate the lost information in the translation.

Example 5:

山坡羊

潼关怀古

Tptfrm

峰恋如聚,

波涛如怒,

山河表里撞关路。

望西都,

意鋳躍。

伤心秦汉经行处,

宫闕万间都做了土。

兴,百姓苦;

亡,百姓苦。

Meditation on the Past at Tongguan

To the Tune of Sheep on the Hillside

Zhang Yanghao

\

Peaks seem gathering,

Waves seem roaring,

Tongguan fortress is topographically impregnable.

Gazing at the capital,

I feel gloomy and miserable.

Sentimental to pass the war source in the Qin and Han Dynasties,

35
A Study on An English TtmslaUon of200 Yuanqu Poem from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
Myriad imperkl palaces once so grand are razed to debris.

Rise of an empire, the populace suffer,

Fall of an empire, the Jjopulace suffer.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009:172-173)

The poet describes that Tongguan is strategically situated and difficult of access,

1 她ents the rise and fall of dynasties, and sympathizes with the people involved. With

relevant information about the Qin and Han Dynasties in the sixth line and

seventh line and “天下兴亡,匹夫有责” in Chinese people’s mind, it is easy for

Chinese reader to associate “兴”and “亡” with an empire. However it is not so

easy for the target reader to associate “兴”and “亡” with an empire, Professor

Zhou sensitively realizes this point and translates “兴,百姓苦;” and “亡,百

姓苦” into “Rise of an empire,the populace suffer,” and “Fall of an empire, the

populace suffer.” The translator’s addition enhances the degree of relevance, reduces

the target reader’s difficulty in understanding this poem, and is a good choice.

Sometimes, a Chinese poet expresses the theme of his poem in a mild and

indirect way with large amount of infomiation concealed. This information is easy for

the Chinese reader to catch but hard for the foreign reader. Professor Zhou adds the

information concealed in the original text to his translation to help the foreign reader

to understand.

Example 6:

落梅风

春情

张可久

秋千院’

拜扫天,

柳阴中躲莺藏燕。

掩霜執递将诗半篇,

怕帘外卖花人见。

Thought of Love

36
Chapter Four Professor Siou’s Ad^tation and Transformation in Transla^on ofYuanqu Poems
To the Tune of Plum-sweeping Wind

Zhang Kejiu

Girls are on swings in the courtyard,

It’s time to sacrifice to the graveyard,

Figures of beautiful maidens play in the willow shade.

The white kerchief pass quietly as a token of love to a lad,

If seen by the flower girl that’s too bad.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009:252-253)

This poem describes the secret meeting of a couple of lovers. In the original text,

the poet neither directly describes the lovers nor does he mention the meeting in the

poem. However, the Chinese readers can read the love into the poems from “秋千院”

and “霜级” .Professor Zhou knows that it will be difficult for the foreign reader to

understand the poems without compensation of information. They may wonder who

I

are doing what in the poem. Professor Zhou then adds “girls” into the first line,

“figures of beautiful maidens” into the third line, and “as a token of love” into the

fourth line. This information is enough to get rid of the doubt in the foreign reader’s

mind.

4.4.2.2 Annotation

In Yuanqu poems, allusions are usually quoted to achieve conciseness and

respond to the theme. In the translation of Yuanqu poems, sometimes it is almost

impossible to compensate the lost cultural connotation of the allusions with addition

without damaging the form of the translation. Professor Zhou creatively uses

annotation to handle allusions, which, not only retains the form of the original text but

also bridges the cultural gap between the Chinese culture and the target reader.

Example 7:

水仙子

咏雪

乔吉

冷无香柳絮扑将来,

37
A Study on An English IhmsiMm of200 Yiianqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-translatology
冻成片梨花拂不幵,

大灰泥漫了三千界。

银棱了东大海,

探梅的心嘴难捱。

面翁儿里袁安舍,

盐堆儿里党尉宅,

粉to儿里舞榭歌台。

Ode to Snow

To the Tune of Narcissus

Qiao Ji

Blowing on my face are cold catkins not fragrant,

Whirling around are frozen pear blossoms so elegant.

With heavy grey dust the sky is overcast.

Whitewashed is the sea so vast.

The desire to look for plum urges me setting out.

The white flour jar causes me to think ofYuan’s? hut.

The pile of salt is associated with Dang Wei’s? mansion,

Wealthy people are singing and dancing as they wanton.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009:198-199)

(Dvuan An was born in the west Han Dynasty in Ruyang (Today’s Henan Province). Yuan was once.

the Prefect of the Chu Prefecture. Before he came into power, he and his family were content with

poverty and never pleaded with others for mercy. He was thus regarded as the model of virtue.

(^)Dang Wei refers to Dang Jin, a wealthy plutocrat in the Song Dynasty, who indulged himself in

sensual pleasure ail his life.

The poet of this poem makes his effort to depict the heavy snow. He creatively

associates the heavy snow with Yuan An’s hut and Dang Wei’s mansion. The reader

may ask who Yuan An and Dang Wei are, and what is the relationship between them

and the heavy snow? The translator also arouses the target reader’s curiosity and then

he satisfies the curiosity with annotations. By doing so? the translator cultivates tbe

target reader’s interest in the Chinese 1 姐guage and conveys Chinese cidture to the

ss
Chapter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptation and Transformation in Translation ofYuanqu Poems
target reader.

Example 8;

水仙子

渡瓜洲

赵善庆

渚莲花脱锦衣收,

风蓼青雕红穗秋。

堤柳绿减长条瘦,

系行人来去愁,

别离情今古悠悠。

南徐城下,

西津渡口,

北固山头。

Crossing Guazhou

To the Tune of Narcissus

Zhao Shanqing

Withering are lotus flowers and their beauty by the river islet.

Fading is knotweed in wind and its tears redden the autumn tint

Willow tints of green are fading and twigs slender,

Mingled with the sorrow of the heart-broken traveller,

A tearful parting from the lover is haunting forever.

At the gate of Nanxu,①

At the ferry of Xijin,②

At the top of Beigu Mountain.③

(D Nanxu is another name for today’ Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province.

(2) Xijin is a ferry on the north ofZbenjiang, Jiangsu Province,

③ Beigu Mountain is a mountain protrudging into the Yangtze River on the north of Zheniang, Jiangsu

Province.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009:238-239)

39
A Stut^f on An English Ttcmladon of200 Ykanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco”translatotogy
This poem expresses the poet’s melancholy at Nanxu. In tiiis poem, the place is

an important factor because it is the place the poet departs from. However, Nanxu is

an old name which baffles the foreign reader. Professor Zhou provides annotations to

tell the foreign reader where the poem was composed and the relation of among

Nanxu, Xijin and Beigu Mountain. The annotation helps the foreign reader to

understand this poem.

4.4.3 Adaptive Transformation from the Communicative

Dimension

Adaptive transformation, from the communicative dimension means that

translators must concern about the bilingual communicative purpose in the translation

process. This transformation requires translators to lay their emphasis on

communicative level, and be concerned with whether the communicative purpose in

the source text is achieved in the target text, while taking the transformation of

language form and transmission of cultural connotation into account (Hu Gengshen

2008: 3). “in An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems, Professor Zhou realized the

purpose of communication by translating the denotation of the image and reproducing

the poetic imagery of the original text.

4.4.3.1 Translating the Denotation of the Image

From the perspective of communication, some of the images in the Yuanqu

poems are too difficult for the target reader to understand. Professor Zhou reduces the

degree of difficulty of understanding by translating the denotation of the image.

Example 9:

四块玉

闲适

关汉卿

南亩耕,

东山卧。

世态人情经历多,

闲将往事思量过,

贤的是他,

40
Chapter Four Professor 及ou,s Adaptation and Transfonnatioa in TraasMon gfYuanqu Poems
愚的是我,

争什么?

Leisure

To the Tune of Four Pieces of Jade

Guan Hanqing

In the south fields I am farming,

A secluded life I am leading.

Having gone through all ways of the world.

I stay calm and weigh them in a right mood,

Worldly-wise they are,

Foolish I’m so far,

With whom can I spar?

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009:34-35)

In the original text, the poet begins with images: “南亩’,and “东山”.They are

not just two places but are the synonym of the secluded life that the poet is longing for.

In the translation, the translator directly translated “南亩” and “东山卧” into “south

fields” and “a secluded life”. This translation method successfully connects the “south

fields” with “a secluded life” and reduces the degree of difficulty of understanding.

Although the effect of allusion has lost more or less, it is much easier for the target

reader to understand. Due to cultural differences, the translator added “I” in the

translation to adapt to the English expression and help the target reader to avoid

misunderstanding. This translation is a big success because it conveys Chinese culture

under the premise of English expression.

Example 10:

普絲

喜得家书

关汉卿

久客在京师,

甚的是闲传示!

心头眼底,

41
A Study on An English Trcmslcdion of200 Yuanqu Poems from fee Perspective of Eco-translatology
横躺莺儿》

趁西风折桂枝,

已遂了青云志。

盼的他一纸音书,

却是断肠诗词。

堪为字史,

颜筋柳骨,

献之羲之。

Happy to Get a Letter from Home

To the Tune of Jubilation All over the World

Guan Hanqing

Absent in the capital a long time,

Too happy to believe a letter from home!

Yingying is in my mind,

Yingying is in my sight.

With the west wind I’ve won laurels in the moon,

With my wish fulfilled I’ll be promoted soon.

The mail I yearn for comes in. tiie end,

But it’s full of heart-breaking words.

She may be the famous calligraphy officer,

As the writing reflects the style of calligrapher,

Like the handwriting of calligraphy master.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 40-41)

In the original text, there are several special expressions such as “折桂枝”,

“青云志”,“献之” and “ 羲之” .These expressions are too hard for foreign

readers to understand if they are translated literally. Professor Zhou directly translates

the denotations of these images. This guarantees the communicative effect of the

translation to the largest extent.

4.43.2 Reproduction of the Poetic Imagery

42
Charter Four Professor Zhou’s Adaptati<m and Transformation in Translation of ^banqu Poems
The aim of translation is to communicate and to provide tiie target reader wittt

authentic Chinese culture. In the translation of Yuanqu poems, the poetic imagery of

Yuanqu poems is what the translator should reproduce since it affects the target

reader’s reaction and appreciation of the translation.

Example 11:

天净沙

秋思

马致远

枯藤老树昏鸦,

小桥流水人家,

古道西风瘦马。

夕阳西下,

断肠人在天涯。

Autumn Thought

To the Tune of Sky-clear Sand

Ma Zhiyuan

Withered vine, old tree, a raven at dusk crows,

Tiny bridge, thatched cottages and a stream flows,

Ancient road, bleak wind, a bony steed slows,

The setting sun in the west glows,

The sorrow of the heart-broken traveller grows.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 96-97)

In the above poem, the poet lists eleven isolated images:’‘枯藤”,“老树”,“昏

鸦”,“小桥”,“流水”,“人家”,“古道”,“西风”,“瘦马”,”夕阳”,and “断肠人All

these images are vague and they constitute the typical picture of the scenery in

autumn. However, no one could tell what a picture it is as the images in it are all

vague. No one knows how many withered wines are there,how old the tree is, where

the raven is and what 汪 bridge it is. This is exactly where the potential charm lies. This

poem achieves the effect that “there are a thousand Hamlets in a thousand people’s

43
A Study on An English ThmskUUm of 20$ HUanqu Poems from Perspective of Eco-trandatology
eyes.” In An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems, most of the poems with “天净

沙’,as tiie name of tune are translated with the aim to reproduce the poetic im^ery of

the original.

Example 12:

天净沙

白朴

孤村落日残霞,

轻烟老树寒鸦,

一点飞鸿影下。

青山绿水,

白草红叶黄花。

Autumn

To the Tune of Sky-clear Sand

BaiPu

Solitary hamlet, setting sun, evening glow,

Curling smoke, old tree, shivering crow,

A flying swan casts downwards its shadow.

Green mountains, lipid water,

Withered grass, red leaves, daisies are yellow.

(Zhou Fangzhu 2009: 64-65)

The poet depicts a spring picture by a series of images, and leaves enormous

space for the reader to imagine what a spring picture it is. The translator reproduces

the poetic imagery to the largest extent and shows the target reader how extensive and

profound Yuanqu poems are.

From the above examples, it can be seen that the translation of Yuanqu poems

should not be limited to conveying only the original content, but should be extended

to the reproduction of the poetic imagery of the original. Only when the target reader

experiences tiie poetic imagery of Yuanqu poems under the premise of understanding

the content can the communicative goal be achieved.

44
Chapter Five Conclusion

Chapter Five Conclusion

As the conclusion of this thesis, this chapter presents the major findings and

limitations of this study and the suggestions for farther study.

5.1 Major findings and Implications of the Study

Based on Eco-translatology,this study systematically analyzes the translation

process of An English Translation of200 Yuanqu Poems by Professor Zhou Fangzhix,

arriving at the conclusion that An English Translation of 200 Yuanqu Poems is the

result of Professor Zhou’s adaptation to the translational eco-envixonment and his

adaptive transformation from the three dimensions of language, culture and

communication under the influence of the translational eco-environment.

In the process of adaptation, Professor Zhou not only adapts himself to the

internal translational eco -environment with the translator as the center, including the

translator’s “need” and competence environment. In linguistic dimension, he not

only retains the form of the original text but also realizes the beauty of sound; in

cultural dimension, he compensates the loss of information by addition and annotation;

in communicative dimension, he reduces the degree of difficulty of understanding by

translating the denotation of the image and leaves the target reader the room to

imagine by reproducing the poetic imagery.

5.2 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future

Studies

In spite of the important findings of this study, there are still limitations in it.

First, even though the style of Yuanqu poems,the target reader, and the

mainstream ideology of the translator’s time are discussed and analyzed as the

essential elements in the external translational eco-environment,other elements such

as the publisher and the reviewer are neglected. So the discussion about the influence

of the translational eco-environment is not perfect and future studies can take the

publisher and the reviewer into account and analyze their roles in translation.

Second, the author takes An English Translation of 200 Yuanqu Poems by

45
A Study on An English Thmslation of20QYuanqu Poems from the Perspective of Eco-tran^atology
Professor Zhou Fangzhu as the research object. There are two other English versions

by Gu Zhengkun and Xu Yuanchong. They are also valuable versions that deserve

reasearch attention. Future study can be done with the two versions as the research

obgects to explore the translation methods ofYuanqu poems.

Finally, different versions enable scholars to compare different translations of the

same Yuanqu poems. A comparative study of different translations of the same

Yuanqu poems can be done in the future.

46
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Works Cited

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Michigan. 1993.

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Gorle’e, Dinda. Semiotics and the Problem of Translation: with Special Reference to

the Semiotics of Charles S. Peirce. Amsterdamy Atlanta: Ro do pi B. V,1994.

James, Liu. The Art of Chinese Poetry [M], London: Routledge and Kegan Paul;

Chicago: The University of Chieago Press, 1962.

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[M]. London: Transaction Publishers, 1999.

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Perkinson, Henry. How Things Got Better: Speech, Writing,Printing, and Cultural

Change. [M]. London: Bergin & Garvey,1995.

Schlepp,Wayne, San-chu: Its Technique and Imagery [M].Madison: The University of

Wisconsin Press, 1970.

Steinei?,George. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation [M]. London:

Oxford University Press.

Verschueren, Jef. Pragmatics as a Theory of Linguistic Adaptation. IPRA Working

Document 1,1987.

Warren, Roseanna. (ed.). The Art of Translation: Voice from the Field [C]. Boston:

Northeastern University Press,1989.

陈宁宁,《天净沙.秋思》四种译文赏析—-兼谈诗歌翻译的可译性限度m.河

南机电高等专科学校学报,2008(4): 82-84.

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辜正坤,元曲一百五十首[M].北京:北京大学出版社,2004.

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胡庚申,适应与选择…翻译过程新解.[J].四川外语学院学报,2008(4): 90-95.

胡庚申,生态翻译学解读.[J].中国翻译,2008(6): 11-15.

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钱津,生存的选择[M].北京:中国社会科学出版社,2001.

乔曾锐,译论:翻译经验与翻译艺术的评论和探讨[M].北京,北京语言学院出

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张积模,论元曲的翻译[J].解放军外语学院学报,1993(6):87-92.

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峰学院学报,2012(4): 169-171.

48
Publications

Publications

袁刚.从选词、修辞、意象解读元曲英译—-以周方珠的《天净沙.秋思》译本.

为例.洛阳师范学院学报,2012 (6> .

袁刚.生态翻译学视角下的大学校园公示语翻译.淮海工学院学报,2013 (1).

49

生态翻译学视角下的大学校园公示语翻译

生态翻译学视角下的大学校园公示语翻译



(安徽大学 外语学院,安徽 合肥
230601

要:大学校园公示语是校园文化的重要组成部分,其翻译也越来越受到重视。生态翻译学作为
一个全新的翻译理论,为公示语翻译提供了新的翻译原则。以生态翻译学为理论框架,探讨了翻译
生态环境,并从语言维、文化维和交际维三个维度对大学校园公示语的翻译问题进行了研究。
关键词:校园公示语翻译;生态翻译学;生态环境;翻译过程
中图分类号:
H315.9
文献标识码:

文章编号:
2095-333X

2013

01-0077-03

一、引言
公示语是指公开和面对公众,告示、指示、提示、
显示、警示、标示与其生活、生产、生命、生态、生业休
戚相关的文字及图形信息



。公示语作为传达信息
的重要工具,在提高生活质量,引导人们趋利避害和
构建和谐社会等方面均发挥着重要的作用



。随着
改革开放的持续深入和公示语在我国的普及,国内
对于公示语英译的研究也蓬勃发展,研究成果主要
集中在对公示语特点、功能的研究,对城市和景区公
示语翻译现状的研究,对公示语翻译错误类型及其
成因的研究和对公示语翻译理论和策略的研究,对
大学校园公示语翻译的研究尚不多见,且多停留在
分析错误类型上,缺乏相关理论指导。本研究以生
态翻译学为理论框架,以大学校园公示语为研究对
象,从语言维、文化维、交际维三个方面分析了校园
公示语翻译中存在的问题,提出了大学校园公示语
翻译的基本原则,希望通过本研究探索大学校园公
示语翻译的新视角。

二、理论背景
生态翻译学是从翻译适应选择论发展而来的一
种生态学的翻译观,是胡庚申教授于
2004
年提出的
全新的翻译理论。该理论将达尔文生物进化论中的
“自然选择”和“适者生存”与中国古代哲学中的“天人
合一”和“适中尚和”理念相结合,从一个全新的视角
诠释翻译活动和翻译现象。从这个角度来解读翻译
过程,翻译被定义为“译者适应翻译生态环境的选择
活动”



。从这一定义中我们发现,该定义将翻译活
动分为两部分———译者对翻译生态环境的适应和译
者对译本的选择。译者既是适应的主体也是选择的
主体。这里的“翻译生态环境”指的是原文、原语和译
语所呈现的世界,即语言、交际、文化、社会以及作者、
读者、委托者等互联互动的整体。翻译生态环境是制
约译者最佳适应和优化选择的多种因素的集合




根据达尔文生物进化论的“适应/选择”理论,只有“生
命体”才具有适应环境的能力。在翻译过程中,只有
作为“生命体”的译者才具有适应翻译生态环境的能
力,并在适应翻译生态环境后对译文做出选择。
从胡庚申教授给“翻译生态环境”下的定义可以
看出,翻译生态环境应该包括两个方面:第一、原文
所呈现的世界,第二、原语和译语所呈现的世界。原
文所呈现的世界具有具体性,笔者暂且称之为具体
生态环境,它包括原文文本类型,具体的生长和生存
环境、文本特点及其特定的读者群体。文本类型、文
本生长生存环境、文本特点及其读者群体等因素深
刻地影响着译者对该文本的翻译活动。原语和译语
所呈现的世界具有抽象性,是以两种语言为核心的
普遍生态环境。英语和汉语分别属于不同的语系,
汉英公示语在表达形式上存在巨大差异。汉语重意
和,中国人习惯形象思维,汉语行文多用四字短语和
排比句式以期获得修辞效果,而英语重形和,西方人
习惯逻辑思维,用词简洁明了、清晰易懂。大学校园
公示语作为一种应用文本也不例外,其翻译活动也

收稿日期:
2012-11-27
;修订日期:
2012-12-24
作者简介:袁刚(
1986-
),男,安徽合肥人,安徽大学外语学院硕士研究生,主要从事翻译理论与实践方面的研究,(
E-mail

744680466@
qq.com
。受到生态环境这两方面的影响。译者只有做到了这
两方面的适应,才能产出接受度高的译本。

三、大学校园公示语英译现状
改革开放以来,国内外高校之间交流日益频繁,
联系日益紧密。国内高校留学生和外籍教师日益增
多,校园双语公示语对他们的生活、学习和工作有着
重要的影响。笔者通过拍照和笔录等形式详细考察
了合肥高校校园双语公示语,共搜集校园双语公示语
近一千条。从搜集到的校园公示语来看,高校校园双
语公示语普及面不够广,且译文不尽如人意,主要存
在拼写不正确、用词不当、译本不统一及拼音化等问
题。笔者就这些问题提出了公示语翻译的具体准则。

四、大学校园公示语英译的三维转换
生态翻译学认为:“译者在翻译过程中只有真正
地做到‘多维’地适应特定的翻译生态环境和至少
‘三维’(语言维、文化维、交际维)的选择转换,才有
可能产生恰当合适的译文。”



(一)语言维的适应性选择转换
语言维的适应性选择转换是指“译者在翻译过
程中对语言形式的适应性选择转换”



。语言维的
适应性选择转换主要体现在用词的准确性和句法的
得体性两方面。这就要求译者在大学校园公示语翻
译的过程中,应根据汉英两种语言的差异和校园公
示语翻译的生态环境,对词汇和句法进行选择调整,
对语言形式进行转换,避免拼写和语法错误、选词不
当以及译文不符合公示语语言特点等问题。
大学校园公示语英译中的拼写错误主要表现在
单词大小写混乱。安徽大学龙河校区理工楼内的“小
心台阶”对应译文为
Watch your steps
,在英语公示语
中,单词可以全部大写,也可以只大写实词的首字母,
此外,
step
一词亦不必用复数。因此,此译文应改为
Watch Your Step

WATCH YOUR STEP
。拼写错
误反映了译者态度不够端正,而语法错误和选词不当
则表明译者的双语水平有待提高。在合肥大业大学
内,“保护环境从我做起”被译成了
Protect Environ-
ment begin with me
。这个译文中不仅没有将
begin

me
两个单词的首字母大写,还在无连词的情况下
同时使用了两个动词,应改为
Protecting Environment
Begins with Me
。选词不当现象在大学校园公示语英
译中也比较普遍,在中国科技大学,“请勿喧哗”被翻
译成 了
KEEP SILENT
,笔 者 认 为,应 将 其 译 为
PLEASE KEEP QUIET

silent
在 英 语 中 有
making
little or no sound
的意思,译成汉语是“无声的”,“不
出声的”,此公示语显然不是不让学生发出声音,而是
提醒学生不要大声说话,以免影响上课,而
quiet
的意
思是
making very little noise
,用在此处,显然比
silent
更恰当。公示语是一种具有特殊交际功能的文本,具
有语言简洁、措辞准确、清晰易懂等特点,具有严格的
规范性和标准性



。但笔者调查发现,许多英语公示
语不符合公示语的语言特点。例如,安徽大学磬苑校
区水塘边“水深危险,谨防落水”的公示语对应译文为
The water is deep

please do not drop into the pool

该译文虽然传达了汉语公示语的意思,却不符合公示
语简洁性的特点,应改为
Danger

Deep Water

语言维的适应性选择转换要求公示语译者端正
工作态度,对自己和社会负责,准确把握英汉两种语
言的不同特点,提高自身的双语水平的同时关注公
示语的语言特点,忠实准确的译好汉语公示语。
(二)文化维的适应性选择转换
文化维的适应性选择转换是指“译者在翻译过程
中应重视双语文化内涵的传递与阐释”



。文化维的
适应性选择转换要求译者关注原语文化和译语文化
在性质和内容上的差异,避免译文读者从译语的文化
观点出发曲解原文。译者不仅需要注重原语的语言
转换,还需要适应该语言所属的整个文化系统




每一种语言都有其独特的文化内涵,体现一种
认识世界的独特方式。大学校园公示语翻译不仅要
关注语言表层结构的差异,还要关注文化内涵的传
达。例如“留学生餐厅”被翻译成了
Dining Hall for
Foreign Students
,而
foreign
暗含“陌生”、“有距离”
的意思,留学生看到这个公示语难免会有被排斥的
感觉。笔者认为应将其改为
Dining Hall for Inter-
national Students
,以避免
foreign
带来的陌生感。
公示语具有提示性、指示性、限制性、强制性等功能,
但在大学校园这个特殊的环境里,英语公示语的读
者是外籍教师和留学生,英语公示语主要起提示性
和指示性作用,在翻译时应该注意语气恰当。例如,
在许多大学的重点实验室门口经常可以看到“非工
作人员禁止入内”的公示语被翻译成
No Visitors

笔者认为这个译文语气太过强硬,容易使人产生不
愉快的感觉,而
Staff Only
通过转换视角,委婉的传
达了原公示语的含义的同时,在语气和礼貌程度上
也更接近原文,既拉近了两种文化的距离,又容易在
教师之间产生共鸣,为外籍教师所接受。
要译好大学校园公示语,译者除了具备扎实的
双语功底,还需全面了解英汉两种文化,具备广博的
文化知识,在准确传递原文信息的同时,避免文化冲
突和误解,促进文化交流。
(三)交际维的适应性选择转换
交际维的适应性选择转换是指“译者在翻译过
78
淮海工学院学报(人文社会科学版)
2013


月程中关注双语交际意图的适应性选择转换”。交际
维的适应性选择转换要求译者除传递语言信息和文
化内涵之外,把选择转换的重点放在交际层面上,关
注原文的交际意图是否在译文中得以实现




公示语广泛存在于大学校园内,其英语译文与
外籍教师、留学生的生活、工作、学习息息相关。译
者必须高度关注交际层面的适应性选择转换,译文
才能实现原文的交际意图。然而在大学校园公示语
英译中却存在着拼音泛滥,译文不统一等问题,严重
影响英语公示语交际意图的实现。例如,“安徽大学
心理协会”直接被译成了
ANHUI DAXUE XINLI
XIEHUI
。这属于滥用汉语拼音代替英语翻译的问
题,这种译文对外籍教师和留学生来说毫无意义,因
为多数的外籍教师和留学生不懂拼音,即使懂也不
一定能理解类似的“拼音译文”,这样的译文也就难
以实现其交际意图。因此,译者在翻译大学校园公
示语的过程中应该谨慎使用汉语拼音。大学校园公
示语翻译中的另一问题是公示语译文不统一。这一
现象给外籍教师和留学生的工作、生活、学习造成了
诸多不便。在中国科技大学,“第三教学楼”出现了
The Third Teaching Building

No.Three Teach-
ing Building
两个译文,此处的“第三教学楼”应该是
“三号教学楼”,故
No.Three Teaching Building

正确的,而不正确的
The Third Teaching Building
则应该尽快改正,以实现译名统一,避免歧义。校园
公示语翻译译名不统一不仅传达不了公示语的交际
意图,而且还会对外籍教师和留学生产生误导,起到
反作用。
在大学校园公示语英译过程中,交际维的适应
性选择转换必须以实现汉语公示语交际意图为目
标,切实避免拼音泛滥和译名不统一等问题给外籍
教师和留学生的生活、学习、工作带来的不便。

五、结语
大学校园公示语翻译是大学发展和对外开放的
要求和重要标志。其翻译不是两种语言之间简单的
转换,而是两种文化、思维方式的对话。在这一过程
中,对生态环境的适应,语言维、文化维和交际维的
适应性选择转换缺一不可,适应生态环境是前提,语
言维的适应性转换是基础,文化维的适应性选择转
换是要求,交际维的适应性选择转换是目的。在翻
译的过程中,译者只有在适应了翻译生态环境的前
提下,同时做到“三维”的适应性选择转换,才能切实
提高大学校园公示语的翻译质量。
参考文献:


吕和发,单丽萍

汉英公示语词典[



北京:商务印书
馆,
2004.


朱 小 美 等

从 交 际 翻 译 视 角 看 安 徽 城 市 公 示 语 英
译———以合肥、芜湖、淮南、宣城为例[



合肥工业大
学学报,
2011


):
81-86.


胡庚申

生态翻译学解读[



中国翻译,
2008


):
11-15.


胡庚申

适应与选择:翻译过程新解[



四川外国语学
院学报,
2008


):
90-95.


刘艳芳

从翻译适应选择论看新闻报道中隐喻习语的
翻译[



上海翻译,
2009


):
16-18.


胡庚申

从术语看译论———翻译适应选择论概观[



上海翻译,
2008


):
1-5.


戴宗显,吕和发

公示语汉英翻译研究———以
2012
年奥运
会主办城市伦敦为例[



中国翻译,
2005


):
38-42.


胡庚申

《翻译适应选择论》再思[

]//首届海峡两岸翻
译与跨文化研讨会论文集

北京:清华大学,
2005.
On Campus Public Sign Translation from
the Perspective of Eco-translatology
YUAN Gang

School of Foreign Studies

Anhui University

Hefei 230601

China

Abstract

Campus public sign is an indispensable part of campus culture.Its translation attracts more and
more attention.As a new translation theory

eco-translatology provides public sign translation with new
translation principles.With eco-translatology as framework

this study explores eco-environment of trans-
lation and analyzes problems in campus public sign translation from perspectives of language

culture and
communication.
Key words

campus public sign translation

eco-tranlatology

eco-environment

translation process
(责任编辑:徐习军

实习编辑:李

畅)
79


期 袁

刚:生态翻译学视角下的大学校园公示语翻译

从选词、修辞、意象解读元曲英译

从选词、修辞、意象解读元曲英译
———以周方珠的《天净沙·秋思》译本为例
袁 刚
( 安徽大学 外国语学院,安徽 合肥 230601)
摘 要: 元曲作为承接唐诗宋词,启承明清小说的文学体裁,在历史上有重要的文学地位。马致远作为
元曲的代表人物,其作品虽然存世不多,却因其风格洒脱豪放,成为元曲中的经典之作,也成为历代翻译家
翻译的重点。选取周方珠先生翻译的《天净沙·秋思》译文,从选词、修辞、格律三个方面对其进行了赏析发
现,该译文在最大程度上再现了原作的音美,保留了原作的形美,还原了原作的意象之美,向英语读者传达
了原作的美感。
关键词: 选词; 修辞; 意象; 元曲; 翻译
中图分类号: H315. 9 文献标识码: A 文章编号: 1009 -4970( 2012) 06 -0099 -03
收稿日期: 2012 -02 -17
作者简介: 袁刚( 1986 - ) ,男,安徽合肥人,安徽大学外国语学院硕士研究生,研究方向为翻译理论与
实践。
在中国文学史上,唐诗、宋词、元曲、明清小
说各领风骚数百年。元曲作为承接唐诗宋词,向明
清小说过渡的文学体裁,在中国文学史上具有重要
的地位。清末民初著名学者王国维在其《宋元戏曲
史·序》中言称: “唐之诗,宋之词,元之曲,皆所
谓一代之文学,而后世莫能继焉者也。”
[1]8
由此可
见元曲在中国文学史上的地位。元曲句子参差不
齐,自由活泼,押韵方式多样,形成了自己独特的
艺术风格。在存世的众多元曲中,马致远创作题材
宽广,意境高远,形象鲜明,语言优美,音韵和谐,
被誉为元散曲中的第一大家“曲状元”和“秋思之
祖”。其《天净沙·秋思》更是凭借独特的视角,细
腻的笔触和对意象精准的创造成为元曲中的绝唱。
天净沙·秋思
枯藤老树昏鸦,
小桥流水人家,
古道西风瘦马。
夕阳西下,
断肠人在天涯。
数百年来,此曲广为流传,妇孺皆知。民国初
年艺术眼光极高的王国维先生在其《人间词话》中
将它列为元曲中的“最佳者”,并评论说: “《天净沙
·秋思》,纯是天籁,仿佛唐人绝句”( 《宋元戏曲
考·元剧之文章》) ,深得唐人绝句妙境。由于此曲
独特的艺术成就,其颇受广大元曲爱好者和翻译家
的推崇,已被翻译成数十种文字在全世界流传,仅
英文译本就有几十个。周方珠先生是元曲翻译界的
泰斗,对我国元曲的英译做出了突出的贡献,他翻
译的《天净沙·秋思》因为最大限度地保留了原作
的音美、形美、意美,而成为《天净沙·秋思》众多
译本中最经典的一个。本文选取了周方珠先生的
《天净沙·秋思》译本在此加以分析赏鉴。
《天净沙·秋思》译文:
Autumn Thought
To the Tune of Sky-clear Sand
Withered vines,old tree,a raven at dusk crows,
Tiny bridge,thatched cottage,a stream flows,
Ancient road,bleak wind,a bony steed slows.
The setting sun in the west glows,
A heart-broken man at the end of the world sor-
rows.
一、选词分析———音美
在古诗词中,音美首先体现在音节与节奏上,
其次体现在押韵上。汉语和英语属于完全不同的语
言体系。汉语是声调语言,汉字是表意方块字,没
有明显的重音,汉字的四个声调使得汉语诗句读起
来抑扬顿挫,做到了音美。英语是重音语言,英语
单词是抽象符号组成的拼音文字,多音节词比较
多,且没有四声。英语中凡是两个音节以上的单词
都有明显的重音,英语的格律是通过轻重音节相间
的排列形式实现的,以音步为单位。由于英汉语在
2012 年 6 月
第 31 卷 第 6 期
洛阳师范学院学报
Journal of Luoyang Normal University
Jun. ,2012
Vol. 31 No. 6音节和节奏上存在巨大差距,导致要翻译好注重音
美的汉语诗歌尤其困难。
原作前三句,每一句罗列三个两字短语,后两
句仅用区区十个字将主旨表现透彻,而且全文押
韵,艺术境界之高令人叹为观止。要翻译好这样的
元曲绝非易事。从选词方面来讲,笔者认为,译作
的选词应该以词语形式意义和内涵意义上的一致性
作为选词的标准,如果两者不能同时做到,那么应
该遵循内涵意义优先的原则。周先生将题目“秋思”
译成了“Autumn Thought”做到了与原作题目形式意
义和内涵意义上的对等,读起来像原题目一样意境
高远,令人拍案叫绝。
《秋思》从头到尾都押“ɑ”韵,读起来节奏鲜
明,朗朗上口,将元曲的音美体现得淋漓尽致。在
译作 中,五 个 小 句 最 后 的“crows”、“flows”、
“slows”、“glows”和“sorrows”在押韵上与原作保持
了一致,实现了原作音美的再现。在其他意象的选
择和排列上,也很好地兼顾了音美( 包括形美) ,使
译作读起来像原作一样节奏鲜明。周先生将“西风”
译成了“bleak wind”,精准地把握住了“西风”的内
涵意义,为译作增彩不少。笔者看过不少译本将
“西风”译成了“western wind”,认为实在不妥,因
为英语中的“western wind”是从大洋吹来的,温暖
湿润,预示着春天的到来; 而汉语中的“西风”是从
大漠刮起的,通常寒冷干燥,预示着冬天的到来。
这些译者没有把握原作选词的内涵,以致选词出现
失误。
周先生的译本在选词上既精确地把握住了原作
选词的内涵意义,又充分还原了原作的音美,还照
顾了原作的形式。选词之精妙,行文之流畅,音美
保存之完整都做到了完美的体现。
二、修辞分析———形美
形美,主要是指诗歌的体裁方面,或者说是诗
歌的格律。元曲作为一种独特的文学体裁,都是按
照一定的格律来写的,具有句子参差不齐,自由活
泼,押韵方式多样的特点。音美与形美联系紧密,
两者互为载体,相得益彰。《天净沙》曲牌名的独特
之处在于“列锦”这种修辞方式的使用。“列锦是由
两个以上的名词或名词短语并列组合而成的一种绘
景传情的修辞方式。”
[2]1398
由于在各意象之间不使
用连接词,而使得原作最大限度地摆脱了语法的束
缚,把想象的空间留给了读者。汉语在句法结构上
侧重意合,英语侧重形合,两种语言在句法上的巨
大差异使得在汉语中常见的列锦在英语中缺失。但
是列锦对意象具有强大的表现力,这也使得列锦成
为国外诗人和翻译家关注的重点。
在《天净沙·秋思》中一连串罗列了“枯藤”、
“老树”、“昏鸦”,“小桥”、“流水”、“人家”,“古
道”、“西风”、“瘦马”,“夕阳”,“断肠人”十一个
意象,这种罗列不仅没有让原作显得生涩,反而含
蓄凝练地勾勒出万千幅主题相似但形态各异的绝妙
的画卷,每一个读者都可以有自己的解读方式。笔
者读过许多翻译家的《天净沙·秋思》英译本,与他
们相比,周先生的译文在形式上最大限度与原作保
持一致的同时,尽可能地保留了原作留给读者的想
象空间。和原作一样,周先生的译本也创造性地运
用了列锦。其译作中各意象实现了与原作中意象的
完美对应,如“枯藤”对应“Withered vines”,“老
树”对应“old tree”,“昏鸦”对应“a raven at dusk
crows”; “小桥”对应“Tiny bridge”,“流水”对应“a
stream flows”,“人家”对应“thatched cottage”( 译作
在此处为照顾押韵,调整了意象顺序) ; “古道”对
应“Ancient road”,“西风”对应“bleak wind”,“瘦
马”对应“a bony steed slows”; “夕阳”对应“The set-
ting sun”,“断肠人”对应“A heart-broken man”。在
形美上做得无可挑剔。另外,译作五个小句最后的
“crows”、“flows”、“slows”、“glows”和“sorrows”在
押韵上风格上与原作保持了一致,在实现了原作音
美再现的同时,与原作在押韵上实现了对等,做到
了音美和形美的完美结合。
三、意境分析———意美
意境是由诗歌中各个具体的意象共同构成的。
“意”是诗人要表达的思想、情感,“象”是具体可感
的事物。诗人通过对“象”的描写,向读者传达自己
的“意”。而读者则通过想象还原和再现诗人创造的
形象,领会作者传达的思想、情感。读元曲不仅仅
读它的语言本身,而是透过语言的表象,读出它背
后所蕴涵的深意。
由于汉语与英语在句法结构上的重大差异,汉
语侧重意合,句子组织灵活,外松内紧。而英语侧
重形合,句子结构紧密。而且,汉语中没有像英语
那样严格的单复数概念。《天净沙·秋思》中列锦这
一汉语中常见、英语中缺失的修辞手法的使用,使
此曲中前三行的 9 个名词之间没有任何连接词,完
全是独立的排列组合。这种松散的排列组合在体现
汉语句法结构灵活性和名词单复数模糊性特征的同
·100·
洛阳师范学院学报 2012 年第 6 期时也给读者留下无限的想象空间。“枯藤”、“老
树”、“昏鸦”,“小桥”、“流水”、“人家”,“古道”、
“西风”、“瘦马”,“夕阳”,“断肠人”都是具体的,
但是有没有人能说清楚“枯藤”几根,“老树”多老,
“昏鸦”多少; 也没人能说清楚“小桥”到底是什么
桥,“人家”到底多少户,“西风”到底有多大; “瘦
马”到底有多瘦……正是原作者成功地运用了这一
系列具体而又模糊的意象,才使此曲成为千古佳
作。
“‘留白’本是书画用语,系指以‘无’写‘有’、
‘计白当黑’的表现手法。”
[3]
“空白是一条通幽的
曲径,使欣赏者循此而入洞天桃源,领略艺术欣赏
的神圣灵光,享受人类最崇高的美感。艺术创作,
创作‘空白’有时比创造形象更重要。”
[4]
“语言或
多或少是模糊的。”
[5]98
翻译中的“留白”就是尽可
能地保留原作的模糊性。周先生的译本充分把握住
了原作的“留白”特征,以“留白”的手法对原作进
行翻译。译作仿照原作,运用了列锦的修辞手法,
以期尽可能地保留原作的语义模糊、意象模糊及结
构模糊。但是,英汉两种语言的巨大差异导致不可
能在保留原作模糊性上做到绝对的忠实于原作。这
表现在三方面。第一,原作中模糊的单复数关系将
不可避免地影响译作的翻译,无论译作选择单数还
是复数形式,都会使原作中模糊的语义和意象趋于
清晰,而缩小读者的想象空间。例如: “枯藤”翻译
成“Withered vines”,“昏鸦”对应“a raven at dusk
crows”,“流水”对应“a stream flows”,“瘦马”对应
“a bony steed slows”。第二,出于押韵的考虑,译作
中的意象排列顺序与原作有出入。第三,译者主观
理解及选词,必然会影响译作对原作的忠实程度。
如: “slows”的使用,使得“瘦马”的模糊状态清晰
化了。这是每一个翻译家都会遇到的问题,周先生
“留白”手法的选用,已经在最大程度上做到了保留
原作模糊性,还原原作意境,实属不易,不可吹毛
求疵。
从意象的角度来看,周先生的译本沿用了列锦
的修辞手法,采取“留白”的翻译手法对原作的模糊
性进行了最大程度的保留,以留给读者最大的联想
空间。
四、总结
元曲作为中国诗歌的一种,是音美、形美、意
美等的综合体。人们对于自身以及对于世界的认识
过程是相似的,认识方式是相通的,这使人们跨越
语言习惯、思维方式和文化背景的鸿沟,英译元曲
成为可能。“翻译效果是受主客观两方面因素影响
的。客观方面即语言材料本身; 主观方面即作者根
据语境、文体、自身的美学观点做出的决策。”
[6]18
完整地保留原作的音美、形美、意美也是衡量译作
质量的重要标准。汉英两种语言巨大的差距,使得
在对等翻译中要做到三者兼顾极其困难,但并不是
完全没有可能。三美中,音美是最难传达的,形美
其次,意美再次之。而其中最重要的是意美。意美
是诗歌的灵魂,形美和音美是诗歌的载体。意美的
正确表达是音美和形美的基础,音美和形美是意美
的有力衬托。周先生的译作紧随原作形式,像原作
一样实现了音美、形美、意美的结合,使原文和译
文更为接近,使译文比较真实地再现原文,表达了
难以尽述的内蕴,形象地描绘出天涯游子凄楚、悲
怆的内心世界,是不可多得的译作。
[参 考 文 献]
[1]王国维. 宋元戏曲史[M]. 上海: 商务印书馆,1915.
[2]杨春霖,刘帆. 汉语修辞艺术大辞典[M]. 西安: 陕西人
民出版社,1995.
[3]周方珠. 元曲的鉴赏与翻译[J]. 海外英语,2006( 10) .
[4]王宝增. 创作空白论[J]. 文艺研究,1990( 1) .
[5]伍铁平. 模糊语言学[M]. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社,
1999.
[6]丛滋杭. 中国古典诗歌英译理论研究[M]. 北京: 国防工
业出版社,2007.
[责任编辑 李继峰]
·101·
洛阳师范学院学报 2012 年第 6 期